Numer 2021/3
New paths in the theories of European integration; Cyberspace and digital media in Europe; Volunteering in the times of COVID-19
Redaktorzy: Marta Witkowska, Wojciech Lewandowski, Kamil Ławniczak, Elena Kucheryavaya
Spis treści
Strony
Pobierz
Vladimir G. Ivanov
Universalism and uniqueness in contemporary soft power strategies
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.1
11 – 19
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Słowa kluczowe

soft power |comparative political science |values |spatial competition |Hotelling’s law |political competition |political stability

Streszczenie

The author analyses the principles and regularities of the competition of soft power strategies of different states as an actual problem of comparative politics. The article addresses the question of determining principles and key elements of competing soft power strategies in the system of international relations, which is of current interest in comparative political science. As a methodological foundation of the analysis is used the H. Hotelling’s law of spatial competition and its political implications, formulated by A. Downs. The author examines two contrasting tendencies: drift of the content and strategies of soft power of different states towards unification and convergence of communicated values and standards or on the contrary increase of ideological and value polarization in the wake of escalating international and global tensions. The principles and rules of spatial competition of H. Hotelling and A. Downs have been applied for typology of national strategies of soft power to evaluate their effectiveness and segmentation of potential audience for maximum impact. It was concluded that, due to the polymodality and civilizational diversity of the world, universalist soft-power projects today can only have limited success, with significant costs and reputational losses, while attracting value-close countries and pushing away the others. This division provides the basis for the international clustering by interests and values.


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Uniwersytet RUDN, Moskwa, Rosja

Veton Latifi
The transition paradigm versus integration in the context of political transformation of the Balkan countries
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.2
21 – 34
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Słowa kluczowe

Europeanisation |transition |the Balkans |political transformation |European integration |fall of communism

Streszczenie

Three decades since the end of the Cold War and the fall of communism, some of the Balkan nations are not following yet the lessons for building sustainable peace and functioning democracies according to their aspirations (at least in a declarative way) for association with the liberal democracies of the European Union (EU). Rather, the Balkans’ history is transforming into a story of importing the habits and principles from the communism period in a paradoxical way of establishing the illiberal democracies followed by controversies and defects in the process of state-building. More than a decade, the Balkans, from one side, is transformed into a zone of periphery with a focus of the European determination for the support of the institutional reform through the process of integration, but in parallel, it is being self-formatted into a zone of self-isolation of the Balkan nations. This article will discuss the transition paradigm of the Balkans through functional analysis of aspects related to the rhetoric of Balkan countries in the discourse of the criteria of the European integration project; the dimension of the Balkan ancient myth with the new additional attribute of self-isolation; the insisting of the Balkan political elites for catapulting to the European project; and as well as the dynamics of the transition, internal and European integration of the Albanians and other nations of the Balkan region in the general.


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Uniwersytet Europy Południowo-Wschodniej, Macedonia

Lilla Nóra Kiss,
Aida Bektasheva,
Balázs Szabó
Eurasian Economic Union: in the European Union's footsteps or on new paths?
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.3
35 – 64
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Słowa kluczowe

integration forms |European Union (EU) |Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) |global actors |comparative analysis |PESTEL-analysis

Streszczenie

The European and Eurasian integration forms are genuinely unique, with legislative, executive, and judicial powers at the supranational level. The comparative analysis used in this article was aimed at evaluating the Eurasian Economic Union’s (EAEU) integration in comparison with the European Union’s (EU). The article presents some common characteristics of the European and Eurasian integration processesas well as several differences that may arise from the reasons for integration. The authors analysed, structured, and evaluated the features of the EU and EAEU by applying the interdisciplinary and comparative approach of the PESTEL factors analysis. The conclusion is that even though the EAEU has copied some EU operational mechanisms, the integration’s differences might always be tangible. The authors found particularly interesting how the historical roots of EU integration and the political reasons for enhancing the EAEU exist with similar institutional solutions. The integration’s aim in defining themselves as global actors in the globalised environment is very intriguing. It can be concluded that the EU might serve as an example worth following to the EAEU in many senses.


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Lilla Nóra Kiss
George Mason University, USA


Aida Bektasheva
Uniwersytet w Miszkolcu, Węgry


Balázs Szabó
Uniwersytet w Miszkolcu, Węgry

Krzysztof Feliks Śliwiński
Between national interests and European values: towards the theory of Principled Intergovernmentalism
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.4
65 – 82
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Słowa kluczowe

European Union (EU) |intergovernmentalism |theory of liberal intergovernmentalism |Andrew Moravcsik |European politics |principles of European law

Streszczenie

The aim of the article is to theorise on the role of principles as important variables influencing European politics. Recent European-related events, including but not limited to the immigration crisis, international economic and political competition on a global scale (as well as relations with third parties such as Russia and the United States), prompt us to revise liberal intergovernmentalism as proposed by Andrew Moravcsik at the beginning of 90s last century. The study is based on the analysis of four cases: immigration crisis, posted workers directive, multiannual financial framework post-2020, and relations with Russia concerned energy security. The article puts forward an idea that principles, which European institutions and national governments refer to (such as the principle of solidarity or the principle of the rule of law) have been successfully instrumentalised by a range of actors (major governments, as well as European Commission acting on their behalf) to the greatest benefit of the most powerful governments in Europe.


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Hong Kong Baptist University, Chiny

Waldemar Krztoń
(In)security of the functioning of the information society in the cyberspace area
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.5
85 – 98
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Słowa kluczowe

security |cyberspace |cybersociety |cyber-risks |information society |Internet

Streszczenie

The aim of the article is to identificate and analyse the most important risks associated with human functioning in the network as a member of the information society. The main research problem is the question of what dangers threaten a human functioning in cyberspace? An analysis of the material gathered through its examination, clarification and categorisation enables to solve the research problem. This provides the basis for formulating the thesis that the functioning of the information society in cyberspace includes many positive qualities, nevertheless, one should not forget about the dangers in the form of inundation of information, mental dependence, or criminal activity. The most important, however, is conscious and reasonable exertion of the Internet by users.


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Politechnika Rzeszowska im. Ignacego Łukasiewicza

Magdalena Tkaczyk
The role of the judiciary in environmental securitisation. Urgenda Foundation v. The State of the Netherlands
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.6
99 – 112
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Słowa kluczowe

environment |securitisation theory |Urgenda Foundation case |climate change |discourse analysis |environmental securitisation

Streszczenie

Since climate change is broadly recognised as a threat multiplier, the environmental problems are considered in the sense of security. Academic articles are focused on analysing states, international non-governmental organisations, as well as regional entities such as the European Union as securitising actors. Limited attention has been given to the judiciary. This article fills the existing gap. The aim of the research is to analyse how do the Dutch Courts securitise the climate in adjudicating the case Urgenda Foundation v. The State of The Netherlands, through the lens of the securitisation theory. The implementation of discourse analysis as a research methodology has proved that the Dutch courts have contributed to environmental securitisation by ruling on the legal obligation of the Dutch government to prevent dangerous climate change in order to protect its citizens.


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Uniwersytet w Groningen, Holandia

András Torma,
Evelin Ritó
Discussion paper on the European Administrative Space – Hungarian viewpoint
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.7
113 – 127
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Słowa kluczowe

European Administrative Space |OECD |model rules |public administration |administrative law

Streszczenie

The EU Member States are characterised by long and varied institutional history, with different trajectories in their evolution. There is a complex system of relations between the institutions of the European Union and the authorities of the Member States, which are called as the European Administrative Space. This is a multidimensional concept, and it promotes intensive cooperation between administrative actors, and their activities from each level. The European Administrative Space is the area, in which increasingly integrated administrations jointly exercise power delegated to the EU in a system of shared sovereignty. This article explores the reasons for and the consequences of this development.


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András Torma
Uniwersytet w Miszkolcu, Węgry


Evelin Ritó
Uniwersytet w Miszkolcu, Węgry

Nataliia Steblyna
The image of Europe and the European Union in digital media of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia (discourse analysis 2005-2019)
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.8
129 – 146
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Słowa kluczowe

media discourse |Europe |EU |post-Soviet countries |digital mass media |political emotions |image

Streszczenie

The image of the EU and Europe in digital mass media of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia is studied in this article using the methodology of discourse analysis. Independent digital mass media Ukrainska Pravda, Nasha Niva, Lenta.ru, Novaya Gazeta are analysed (online publications from years 2005–2019). Three images of Europe in the media are indicated as a result of the research. In Ukraine: a strong reliance on Europe as the idea is observed. The EU and its institutions are stably present in political news, but European politicians are not so popular. In Belarus: Europe doesn’t structure political discussions, however, efforts of the neighbouring EU Member States may be important in the image creation. In Russia: there is not much interest towards Europe, but some approaches to present constant clashes between Russia and the West are evident in digital mass media. The research has confirmed the main hypothesis, which supposed that the mechanisms of creating the image of Europe and the EU in post-Soviet countries’ mass media are different, and the specifics of political discourse, as well as the states’ international politics define the image.


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Doniecki Uniwersytet Narodowy im. Wasyla Stusa, Ukraina

Dominika Liszkowska
Political leadership of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in selected analytical categories
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.9
149 – 167
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Słowa kluczowe

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan |political leadership |leadership attributes |charismatic leadership |European Union membership |Turkey

Streszczenie

The aim of the article is to define the political leadership of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and present the attributes and factors which primarily influenced the effectiveness of his leadership in the Turkish society. Erdoğan has a strong and unquestioned position in his own party, as well as on the Turkish political scene. For a significant part of the society, he is an irreplaceable person and the best leader in the history of the country. Factors which have a major influence on his success are of social, economic and cultural nature. He is a leader, who can easily turn a crisis to his own advantage and convince his followers to support his own arguments. Erdoğan’s activities, which were firmly focused on economic issues, health care reforms and Turkey’s integration with the European Union, enabled him to gain the support of even this part of the society whose values are distant from the ones he accepts. At the same time, he represents a confrontational attitude towards political opponents and often expresses his reluctance towards them.


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Politechnika Koszalińska

Antoni Morawski,
Michał Szczegielniak
Volunteering in the time of COVID-19. The Polish example for Europe
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.10
169 – 178
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Słowa kluczowe

COVID-19 pandemic |crisis situation |European Solidarity Corps |volunteering

Streszczenie

The subject of the article is the analysis of the possibilities of using the volunteering to counteract adverse effects of crisis situation based on the example of the coronavirus pandemic. The authors examine the Solidarity Corps for Seniors’ Support (pl. Solidarnościowy Korpus Wsparcia Seniorów) and the local system Warsaw Supports ( pl. system Warszawa Wspiera) applying the institutional and normative method, and case study method in an attempt to provide answers to the following questions: (1) How and under what rules was the volunteering potential used to support the citizens? (2) Did the actions based on volunteer activity undertaken in Poland efficiently complement the work of public authorities? (3) Is the implementation of the developed solutions and their usage within the European Solidarity Corps structure possible in similar cases in the future? The case study allows to conclude that Polish solutions proved to be efficient and allowed to formulate the proposals of establishing a broader cooperation between the EU Member States concerning experience sharing in voluntary work development in crisis situations.


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Antoni Morawski
Uniwersytet Warszawski


Michał Szczegielniak
Uniwersytet Warszawski

Tetyana Nagornyak,
Vasyl Buslenko
Influence of the interrelations between power and opposition on democracy in Poland. Selected aspects
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.11
179 – 193
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Słowa kluczowe

political parties |Poland |power |opposition |social capital |democracy deficit

Streszczenie

This article substantiates theoretical and methodological approaches regarding the impact of the power–opposition interrelations on the strengthening and weakening of democracy. Based on the analysis of a number of indicators and modern political process in Poland, it has been established that democratisation takes place against the backdrop of the permanent formation and preservation of two opposed poles in the political space. Deflection from democracy increases the distance between two competing/conflicting parties – pro-government and opposition. This situation automatically accumulates the potential of pole's force. Therefore, the interrelations between the power and the opposition turn into the force of stratification and equalisation that allows reducing the "democracy deficit" and bring the political system into the state of equilibrium.


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Tetyana Nagornyak
Doniecki Uniwersytet Narodowy im. Wasyla Stusa, Ukraina


Vasyl Buslenko
Wołyński Uniwersytet Narodowy im. Łesi Ukrainki, Ukraina

Simona Statneckytė
Lithuanian civil service reform in the process of Europeanisation
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.12
195 – 205
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Słowa kluczowe

Europeanisation |European Union (EU) |civil service |Lithuania |parliamentary elites |reform |government

Streszczenie

The article investigates the interrelationship between Lithuanian civil service reform initiatives and administrative Europeanisation processes by identifying the role and approaches of Lithuanian parliamentary elites in the process of the implementation of reforms during the period of membership in the EU. The research was based on the qualitative content analysis of primary sources, the records of the Lithuanian Government activities, and the qualitative analysis of the secondary sources including research literature and other documents and records, semi-structured qualitative interview. Research gives an opportunity to estimate the level of institutionalisation of pro-European values amongst parliamentary elites and their contributions to the implementation of administrative Europeanisation. According to the research findings, administrative Europeanisation agenda is not a priority for Lithuanian parliamentary elites per se, however, pro-European attitudes are fixed.


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Uniwersytet Kłajpedzki, Litwa

Krzysztof Szewior
Values and aims of the leading universities of the German-speaking countries
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.13
207 – 223
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Słowa kluczowe

universities in German-speaking countries |higher education in Europe |European Higher Education Area |contemporary university model |leading institutions in innovation |evaluation |knowledge management |inclusiveness

Streszczenie

This article is based on the research integrating qualitative approach and the content analysis method. The aim is to analyse the mission and strategy of the higher education institutions, assuming that through the mission and strategy those institutions express their self-identification, describe their current state and indicate the directions of development. The subject of the analysis is the best higher education institutions of the German-speaking countries, operating in national and international environment. The research was based on the content analysis, and on its basis, the values and aims of each university were indicated, and then – using the bottom–up method – the aggregation of the universities’ areas of activities was done. In this sense, the selected scopes of activities and points of focus may constitute a generalised reference to the other universities and to the entire academic community in the studied countries. The analysis of the various types of the universities (full, technical, medical) did not demonstrate any significant differences in their self-identification and the designation of the functions of the university, despite the differences in the language of description and the breadth of the offered career perspectives. The common origin, and cultural and social context were also the important factors in this research. The analised higher education institutions were much more oriented towards the standards defined by the best universities in the world and the global challenges of civilisation, what allowed them to become the leading institutions in innovation and technology transfer to the economy. Nowadays, the investigated universities represent the highest standards of academic knowledge. At the same time, they express contemporary trends and requirements of a business organisation (e.g. transparency, evaluation, knowledge management, inclusiveness). Moreover, the investigated higher education institutions perceive themselves as the socially responsible universities, what is confirmed by such values as: inclusiveness, gender mainstreaming, and sustainable development.


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Uniwersytet Warszawski

Aleksei Chekmazov,
Vladyslav Butenko
The main factors of the recent development of European welfare states: Swedish case
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.14
227 – 232
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Słowa kluczowe

economic crisis |Sweden |COVID-19 pandemic |welfare state |social democracy |decentralisation |deindustrialisation

Streszczenie

This analytical essay is devoted to identifying the features of the formation and development of the Swedish model of the welfare state. The authors study the factors that played the main role in the development of the Swedish model. The authors also assess the impact of the 2008 economic crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic on the Swedish welfare state.


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Aleksei Chekmazov
Uniwersytet RUDN, Moskwa, Rosja


Vladyslav Butenko
Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomii w Moskwie, Rosja

Yury V. Kulintsev
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation’s development within the Greater Eurasian Partnership – Russian viewpoint
DOI: 10.31338/1641-2478pe.3.21.15
233 – 241
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Słowa kluczowe

China |Russia |Eurasian integration |Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) |Greater Eurasian Partnership (GEP) |Belt & Road Initiative (BRI) |Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB)

Streszczenie

The author analyses new directions of development of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), examines the geopolitical reasons of their emergence, and identifies the role and place of the Organisation in the framework of the Greater Eurasian Partnership (GEP).The author also presents the Development Strategy of the SCO until 2025 and identifies the areas of common interests with the GEP’s development ideas, which are focused on the economic and trade-related measures along with the issues of political interaction and cooperation in the field of social security. In conclusion the author claims, that SCO countries are acting as “drivers” of regional development and making a concerted effort to create the necessary conditions for ensuring sustainable social and economic development. The new development directions of the SCO demonstrate that the Organisation is able to adapt to new conditions of the changing world, while its participation in new formats of interaction is in demand among the countries of the Eurasian continent.


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Rosyjska Akademia Nauk, Moskwa

Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Studiów Międzynarodowych
ICI Journals Master List 2019: 100 p.
ISSN 1641-2478
Uniwersytet Warszawski
MEiN: 70 p.
e-ISSN 2657-6023