Numer 34 (43) 2023
Ukraine in Flames
Redaktorzy: Liubov Krupnyk, Andrzej Szpulak, Adrianna Woroch
Spis treści
Strony
Pobierz
Liubov Krupnyk,
Andrzej Szpulak,
Adrianna Woroch
Introduction
5 – 6
PDF

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Liubov Krupnyk
independent researcher


Andrzej Szpulak
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu


Adrianna Woroch
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Larysa Briukhovetska
War drama as a living reality
9 – 28
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

Russian aggression |war drama |Ukrainian cinema |Akhtem Seitablaev |Zaza Buladze |Ivan Tymchenko |Marian Bushan |Cyborgs. Heroes Don’t Die |Call Sign Banderas |Mother of Apostles |Ilovaysk 2014. Donbas Battalion |Sniper. The White Raven

Streszczenie

Since 2014, the Russian aggression in Ukraine has prompted filmmakers to master a new genre of war drama to tell the stories of those who serve in the Ukrainian army or the territorial defense, as well as those who contribute to the war effort as volunteers. The article discusses Ukrainian war drama films: Cyborgs. Heroes Don’t Die, Call Sign Banderas, Mother of Apostles, Ilovaysk 2014. Donbas Battalion, Sniper. The White Raven. These films integrate war drama with other genres such as detective stories, adventure films, and psychological drama. They also refer to some archetypal themes and conflicts in order to frame the current experience of the war. However, it will be argued that these films do not simply reuse the existing genre models, but complicate them. They refresh war drama by prioritizing the concrete experience of the ongoing war against Russian aggression over the genre conventions. Ukrainian war drama shows not a game of war but the truth of war. It tells the real stories of the bravery of ordinary people who fight against Russian aggression.


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Uniwersytet Narodowy „Akademia Kijowsko-Mohylańska”, Ukraina

Yuri Shevchuk
Filmmaking as Cultural Aggression
29 – 48
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

hybrid war |cinematic depopulation |cultural imperialism |Ukrainian film |Russian film

Streszczenie

The article discusses cinematic depopulation, the strategy of appropriation of the colonized by the colonizer widely used in the Soviet and post-Soviet cinema made in Ukraine and Russia and, until now, never analyzed in academic literature. The cinematic depopulation is a mode of filmic representation whereby a given ethnoscape (Ukraine) is cleansed of its national community (Ukrainians) and instead is populated by the colonizer (Russians) as if it were an integral part of his historical territory. As a form of cultural imperialism, this strategy has, until quite recently, been widely used in both Soviet and post-Soviet Russian and Ukrainian filmmaking to promote the idea of Ukraine conceivable outside of and without the Ukrainian language, culture, and other attributes of Ukrainian identity.


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Columbia University, USA
Tetiana Mychajłowa
Triada obrazów akwatycznych jako podstawa integralności kompozycji filmu dokumentalnego Ołeksandra Awszarowa i Switłany Rudiuk Wasz Wasyl
49 – 56
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Streszczenie

Wasz Wasyl (2019) to dokumentalny film Ołeksandra Awszarowa i Switłany Rudiuk o wybitnym XX-wiecznym ukraińskim poecie, Wasylu Stusie (1938–1985), który zginął w sowieckim obozie koncentracyjnym. Warto zauważyć, że nie jest to pierwszy dokumentalny film ogniskujący swoje zainteresowanie na jego postaci. Poecie poświęcone zostały i inne utwory, między innymi trylogia dokumentalna Czarna świeczka...


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Narodowa Akademia Nauk Ukrainy

Serhiy Marchenko
Non-fiction cinema of independent Ukraine
57 – 75
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

media |documentary film |non-fiction cinema |popular science film |historical and cognitive film |film biography |cinematography genres |audiovisual art |film production |mass media |manipulation of mass consciousness |film education

Streszczenie

The article covers the thematic and genre diversity of non-fiction cinema in Ukraine, which following the country’s regaining its independence in 1991, launched a reflection on previously hushed-up topics that were prohibited or covered in a tendentious manner in the Soviet period. The number of films and TV series grew, and the ideological gap between film artists and political elites (partly pro-Russian) resulted in their mass distribution being prevented. This was especially evident in the several-year delay and limits placed on showing the long-awaited series “Unknown Ukraine. Essays of Our History” (1993, NKU-Kyivnaukfilm, 144 films). Quantitative and qualitative changes in this type of cinema over the last three decades are analyzed in this article, presenting periods of its ups and downs, which are synchronized with changes in political processes in Ukraine. It shows how after the mass protests of the Euromaidan Revolution in 2014 and the beginning of the Russian-Ukrainian war, the number of such films increased significantly, providing a considerable informative and educational impact.


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Kijowski Narodowy Uniwersytet Teatru, Kina i Telewizji im. Iwana Karpenki-Karego, Ukraina

Olena Rosinska,
Marta Tymińska
Methods for designing strategic narratives in the description of the 2022 Russian-Ukrainian war in documentaries
79 – 95
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Słowa kluczowe

war |Ukraine |narration |television |documentary |teledocumentaries |documentaries |Russian aggression

Streszczenie

The article discusses methods of designing strategic narratives in teledocumentaries created by various production teams and distributed through the YouTube platform. The authors underline the important role of teledocumentaries in creating an emotional and intellectual response to geopolitical topics among television viewers and attempt to analyse six documentaries focusing on the current war in Ukraine. The aim of the research was to determine key narrative patterns that are presented by production teams from various countries in the context of the armed aggression of the Russian forces in Ukraine. From this research, we can outline three main narrative templates: identity issues (“Us” vs. “Them”), temporal cognition and feeling of “stopping the time”, the image of enemy inter-twined with death, unforgiveness and fear.


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Olena Rosinska
Kijowski Uniwersytet Borysa Hrinczenki, Ukraina


Marta Tymińska
Uniwersytet Gdański

Halyna Pohrebniak
Ukrainian cinematography in the context of intercultural cooperation
97 – 110
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Słowa kluczowe

Ukrainian cinematography |cultural exchange |co-production |Yuriy Rechynsky |Andrea Magnani |Peter Babiak |January – March |Easy |The Line |director

Streszczenie

The article describes the production and distribution of Ukrainian films and establishes scientific guidelines that will contribute to a comprehensive analysis of Ukrainian cinema in the intercultural space. An analytical method was used to develop this topic, which is necessary for studying the art history and cultural aspect of the problem. In addition, the author used the methods of systematization and generalization to argue for the originality of Ukrainian cinematography and its place in modern culture-creating processes. The scientific novelty of the study is that it describes the work of film directors whose films were created as international projects.


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Narodowa Akademia Zarządzania Kulturą i Sztuką w Kijowie, Ukraina

Bohdan Shumylovych
Cinematic Culture During the War in Ukraine: Surviving the Year of Brutalities
111 – 126
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Słowa kluczowe

cinematic culture |the war against Ukraine |film industry

Streszczenie

Russia’s war against Ukraine has brought a humanitarian catastrophe to Europe and disrupted previously established cultural practices and rituals. One such practice has been the making and watching of films, constituting a further blow to the Ukrainian film industry, which has already experienced modifications caused by the VoD (video-on-demand) business mode and the coronavirus crisis. This study intends to highlight how the culture of cinema changed in the cities of Ukraine in 2022 that suffered and are still suffering from shelling and fighting. Its findings are based on ethnographic observations, oral history, and secondary research of public data.


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Katolicki Uniwersytet Ukraiński we Lwowie, Ukraina

Anna Huth
Professional situation of the Ukrainian actors during the Russian aggression against Ukraine
127 – 133
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

Ukrainian film |actors |war in Ukraine

Streszczenie

The paper presents the professional situation of Ukrainian actors after the outbreak of war in February 2022. The data presented here concern the different needs and possibilities of supporting Ukrainian actors living abroad and those displaced within Ukraine. The article presents possible differences in the situation of actors in Ukraine and abroad and how much chance Ukrainian actors currently have to follow up on their acting career.


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Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
Joanna Wojnicka
Siergiej Paradżanow – reżyser kina ukraińskiego
137 – 156
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Słowa kluczowe

kino ukraińskie |Paradżanow |kino radzieckie

Streszczenie

Cienie zapomnianych przodków (Tini zabytych predkiw, 1964) Siergieja Paradżanowa odegrały istotną rolę w historii zarówno ukraińskiego kina, jak i ukraińskiego ruchu dysydenckiego. To fakt bardzo dobrze znany. Adaptacja opowiadania Michajło Kociubynskiego nie tylko dała początek szkole ukraińskiej, nazywanej często (terminem stworzonym przez Janusza Gazdę) – „ukraińskim kinem poetyckim”, lecz także jej głośna kijowska premiera z roku 1965 z udziałem Wasyla Stusa i Iwana Dziuby wywołała szeroki oddźwięk i stała się okazją do politycznej manifestacji...


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Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie

Barbara Lena Gierszewska
Ukraiński ruch filmowy we Lwowie w latach 30. XX wieku
157 – 172
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

Lwów |kultura ukraińska |ruch filmowy |film w latach 1930-1939

Streszczenie

Dorobek ukraińskich propagatorów kina działających we Lwowie oraz na terenach dawnej Galicji Wschodniej do 1939 r. jest wciąż mało znany w historii filmu tego narodu, a w dziejach kinematografii europejskiej w ogóle. Wkład Ukraińców w rozwój kultury wizualnej we Lwowie, choć jest oczywisty, wciąż nie został opisany w zakresie, na jaki zasługuje, ale proces postępuje. Do niedawana, poza kilkunastoma głosami ukraińskich naukowców i popularyzatorów X muzy podejmujących fragmentaryczne badania nad tą tematyką przy okazji namysłu nad początkami kinematografii narodowej, wiedza o osiągnięciach ukraińskich przedstawicieli inteligencji technicznej (choć nie tylko) pozostawiała niedosyt...


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Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach

Roman Rosliak
Oleksandr Dovzhenko and the Soviet Secret Police
173 – 194
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Słowa kluczowe

Oleksandr Dovzhenko |Soviet secret police |agents |agents’ reports |Earth |Ivan |Shchors |Ukraine in Flames

Streszczenie

The article reviews the specifics of the surveillance process of the Ukrainian film director Oleksandr Dovzhenko organized by the Soviet secret police. The main focus is on agents’ reports about the director’s work on the films Earth, Ivan, Shchors, and the screenplay for Ukraine in Flames. The article reveals that Dovzhenko was under permanent secret police surveillance, starting from the end of the 1920s until the end of his life in 1956. This surveillance was well organized; it was large-scale and complex in its nature and covered not only his professional but his private life as well. The purpose of the surveillance was to collect and analyze compromising, i.e., anti-Soviet information against the film director and, if necessary, to open a criminal case against him, and make an arrest.


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Narodowa Akademia Nauk Ukrainy

Larysa Naumova
Oleksandr Dovzhenko, Ivan Kavaleridze, Leonid Skrypnyk: The avant-garde and philosophical explorations of Ukrainian filmmakers of the 1920s
195 – 208
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Słowa kluczowe

Oleksandr Dovzhenko |Earth |Ivan Kavaleridze |Leonid Skrypnyk |Zvenyhora |Arsenal |Downpour |Perekop |rhythm |frame |frame composition |static frame |lighting

Streszczenie

The filmmakers Oleksandr Dovzhenko and Ivan Kavaleridze created bold avant-garde works at the time when Ukrainian cinema was being established, at the end of the 1920s and early 1930s. In effect, the works of these two directors shaped the defining features of Ukrainian cinema. This article discusses the creative methods used by Dovzhenko in his three films Zvenyhora (1927), Arsenal (1929) and Earth (1930), which clearly depict Ukrainian worldviews and mentality. Kavaleridze’s approach is considered in the light of two of his films, Downpour (1929) and Perekop (1930). Already a recognized sculptor at the time, Kavaleridze sought unique forms of expression in film. The approaches these directors took towards framing scenes, montage, lighting and rhythm underpinned the theoretical propositions of their contemporary, Ukrainian film theorist Leonid Skrypnyk. The author suggests that this testifies to a deliberate and comprehensive search for new means of expression in all phases of filmmaking.


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Akademia Nauk Republiki Czeskiej
Kijowski Narodowy Uniwersytet Teatru, Kina i Telewizji im. Iwana Karpenki-Karego, Ukraina

Liubov Krupnyk
Cinema and Polish-Ukrainian Relations Between the 1990s and 2010s
211 – 226
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

film |tragedy |conflict |reconciliation |Jerzy Giedroyc |Wojciech Smarzowski |Jerzy Hoffman |dialogue |historic memory |Polish-Ukrainian relations |film With Fire and Sword |film Vo l y n |Bohdan Stupka

Streszczenie

The article reviews the role of feature films that recreate the conflictual relations of the shared history which Poland and Ukraine look at from significantly different vantage points. It analyzes these films’ influence on Polish-Ukrainian relations, as well as the results of the Polish-Ukrainian dialogue. Using examples of Polish films that were commercially successful – With Fire and Sword by Jerzy Hoffman (1999) and Volyn by Wojciech Smarzowski (2016) – the article traces how cinema can articulate the problems of shared history that exist in the collective memory, and what kind of results it brings.


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Ukraiński Instytut Pamięci Narodowej

Krzysztof Kornacki
Discourse and the Macabre. Creating an Image of the Past in the Film Hatred by Wojciech Smarzowski
227 – 245
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

history |discourse |Hatred |Volyn slaughter |macabre

Streszczenie

The film Hatred (Wołyń) is a hybrid of a classic historical drama (with elements of discourse) and a modernist anti-war film. Smarzowski created a scenario that complicates the history of Volhynia, and renders it open to ambiguous assessments of Poles, Ukrainians, Jews and Germans. The film was supposed to be conciliatory. But this desire to distance itself from factual and ethical simplifications was doomed to lose in confrontation with the emotional force of the final sequence of the cruel crime. The author of the article does not oppose the macabre. From the Polish perspective, it was rather unavoidable in the first film on this subject, because it was not about the information about the crime itself but rather its emotional experience (probably cathartic for some viewers). The author only points to the fact that thinking in terms of reconciliation in the making of the film, which in the first part approaches a distanced discourse (for the full expression of the “voice of history”), and in the final parts is an immersive anti-war film, could not be successful.


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Uniwersytet Gdański

Author Gallery: Heorhij Jakutowycz, Serhij Jakutowycz
247 – 264
PDF
Liubov Krupnyk
Rozmowa z Jerzym Hoffmanem
267 – 272
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Ukraiński Instytut Pamięci Narodowej

Liubov Krupnyk
Rozmowa z Krzysztofem Zanussim
273 – 278
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Ukraiński Instytut Pamięci Narodowej

Witold Stok
Ear to the ground. Searching for ourselves in each other
279 – 282
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Słowa kluczowe

independent film |Ukrainian cinema |Sergey Paradjanov |Polish documentary |Kiev

Streszczenie

An acclaimed Polish cinematographer and documentary film director describes his meeting with Sergey Paradjanov in the 1970s in Kiev. Stok found himself there in connection with the shooting of Piotr Studziński’s documentary film about one of Ukraine’s mathematicians. Despite the difficulties created by the Soviet totalitarian state to isolate Paradjanov, Stok managed to reach the director and also to watch his documentary film about the frescoes in Kiev at a special secret club screening. In his essay – a memoir – the author describes the differences between life in the Soviet Union and in more liberal Communist-ruled Poland. He characterizes Paradjanov’s artistic profile and his fate in the Soviet Union.


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Goldsmiths, University of London, UK
Arts University Bournemouth, UK

Wojciech Sławnikowski
Filmowość Marii Antoniego Malczewskiego
283 – 298
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

romantyzm |teoria filmu |Antoni Malczewski |Maria |Siegfried Kracauer |Béla Balázs |Jean Mitry

Streszczenie

Maria. Powieść ukraińska, opublikowana w 1825 r. jedyna powieść poetycka Antoniego Malczewskiego, obrosła w historii  literatury legendą, podobnie zresztą jak sama osoba jej autora: prekursorskie dzieło i tworzący je samotny geniusz, który przetarł szlaki wieszczom, choć pozostał w ich cieniu, niedoceniony za życia...


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu

Marek Hendrykowski
Okno McLuhana. McLuhan w teorii i praktyce. Jutro widziane dzisiaj
299 – 304
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Słowa kluczowe

komunikacja |kultura |teoria |media |nauka |metodologia |Marshall McLuhan |praktyka

Streszczenie

Marshall McLuhan nie był żadnym wróżem, choć wielu tak uważało – bez znajomości głoszonych przez niego poglądów. W publicystyce tamtych czasów rychło obwołano go kimś w rodzaju nowoczesnego profety – prorokiem ery mediów elektronicznych. Z właściwym sobie poczuciem humoru, przy osobistym aktorskim udziale samego McLuhana wyśmiał ten obiegowy wizerunek Woody Allen w słynnej scenie przed kasą kina w Annie Hall.


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu

Andrzej Szpulak
Obrazy stalinizmu w twardym jądrze i na peryferiach. Kłopoty ze Sceną Faktu TVP (2006–2010)
305 – 318
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Słowa kluczowe

film historyczny |stalinizm w filmie |Scena Faktu

Streszczenie

Seria spektakli telewizyjnych zrealizowanych w latach 2006–2010 przez TVP w ramach Sceny Faktu była szczególnym zdarzeniem dla zapisanej językiem ruchomych obrazów pamięci o czasach stalinowskich. Stało się tak już choćby z uwagi na kwestie ilościowe, gdyż połowa z nich – trzynaście na dwadzieścia sześć – dotyczyła tej tematyki...


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu

Grażyna Gajewska
Ciała protetyczne w anglosaskich utworach fantastycznonaukowych. Ujęcie posthumanistyczne
319 – 336
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Słowa kluczowe

ekokrytyka |posthumanizm |science fiction |bioróżnorodność

Streszczenie

Badaczka wyobrażeń osób z niesprawnościami w science fiction, Kathryn Allan, zauważa, że problematyka zdrowia/choroby i nie(pełno)sprawności w utworach z gatunku fantastyki przykuwa uwagę badaczy, fanów oraz środowisk działających na rzecz niepełnosprawnych już od kilkunastu lat..


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu

Barbora Vinczeová
Religion, Female Sexuality and Magic in (Post)Modern Film
337 – 344
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Słowa kluczowe

sexuality |comparative analysis |witchcraft |magic |postmodernism

Streszczenie

The paper strives to investigate the relationship of female sexuality, magic and religion in film based on the comparison of two selected films. The three themes have been often seen as intertwined especially by religion, which has built an image of a female witch in alliance with the devil, or evil forces. The research aims to answer the question whether postmodern cinema embraces the combination of the aforementioned themes often associated, historically, with the notion of witchcraft practised especially by female witches. The scope of the research is limited to two films; however, the possibility to expand the research in the future and include newer films exists. Comparative methods and analysis are used throughout the paper. The paper is structured according to the analysed themes found in both films – Carrie (dir. Kimberly Peirce, 2013) and Thelma (dir. Joachim Trier, 2017). The author claims that these themes are similar and rooted in the same perception of the female monstrosity in both films, with different outcomes of this combination. The authors suggest that this is due to feminist tendencies becoming more prominent in every artform. However, this claim needs investigating from the feminist studies’ point of view.


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Uniwersytet Mateja Bela w Bańskiej Bystrzycy, Słowacja

Agata Jankowska
Images which are not there. The Representations of the Final Solution in the Examples of Son of Saul and Kornblumenblau
345 – 358
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

Holocaust |cinema |representation |visuality |Holocaust studies |Holocaust movies |film theory |Son of Saul |bare life |Kornblumenblau

Streszczenie

Since the problem of representing the Holocaust first emerged, philosophers, writers and filmmakers have tried to find appropriate aesthetic methods of expression. Two approaches dominate the thinking about the Shoah: Claude Lanzmann’s claim of “the event without images” and George Didi-Huberman’s “images in spite of all”. The author’s analysis deconstructs these two theoretical approaches through the interpretation of two films: the Polish Kornblumenblau and the Hungarian Son of Saul and the notion of “the images which are not there”, that is, the non-existent photographs of the Nazi “Final Solution”. The main thesis of the essay states that cinematic representation and artistic expression can substitute for the lack of historical and visual (mostly photographic) depictions of the Holocaust. With the inspiration of theory (Giorgio Agamben, Siegfried Kracauer), I consider different methods of dealing with the dilemma of “unimaginable Auschwitz” and the concept of “bare life” as an aesthetical problem.

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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
MEiN: 100
ISSN 1731-450X
Instytut Filmu, Mediów i Sztuk Audiowizualnych
e-ISSN 2720-040X