Security and Society in the Information Age. Volume 2
Redaktorzy: Katarzyna Maniszewska, Paulina Piasecka
Spis treści
Strony
Pobierz
Katarzyna Maniszewska,
Renee Stillings,
Paulina Piasecka
Opening Remarks
5 – 6
PDF

INFORMACJE O AUTORACH


Katarzyna Maniszewska
Collegium Civitas, Warszawa, Polska

Renee Stillings
Study, Research, and Custom Programs Abroad (SRAS), USA

Paulina Piasecka
Collegium Civitas, Warszawa, Polska
Andrew Holub
An Introduction to Human Evolved Psychology and Political Violence: Implications for Future Directions in Research and Practice
7 – 26
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

evolutionary psychology |Human group dynamics |political violence |Future of scientific theory

Streszczenie

Although media headlines may create the appearance that political violence is a new and burgeoning phenomenon in societies, its antecedents are entirely and undeniably at least as old as the human species. The study of human evolution can offer important insights into describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling political violence. Applying evolutionary theory has become, and will remain, and important cornerstone of the study of violence, including political violence. Doing so mandates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of natural and sexual selection, and how these forces have designed minds with adaptations to solve problems presented by group living. The following is intended to be a brief introduction for students and scientists unfamiliar with the study of the evolved human mind, using human social violence as the model of illustration. In conclusion, recommendations for further developing scientific research into a metatheory to explain human (violent) behaviour is presented as a lofty, but increasingly tangible (through technological advances) endeavour for future researchers that will enable more effective social policies.


INFORMACJE O AUTORZE

Oakland University in Rochester, USA
Brendon Fujisawa
A Case Study of the Effect of Duterte’s Policies on the Rise of Terror
27 – 39
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

Philippines |Drug war |Duterte |Abu Sayyaf

Streszczenie

President Rodrigo Duterte of the Philippines has enacted numerous extreme policies targeting drug dealers and users in the Philippines. Since his election there has also been an increase in Islamic terror activity. This paper seeks to explore whether these policies had an impact on the rise in terrorism in the country.


INFORMACJE O AUTORZE

California State University, Fresno, USA
Mara Royse
Cultivating Children for War: A Case Study Comparing US Military Recruitment Strategies and Islamic State Radicalization Tactics
40 – 66
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

Children |Radicalization |Recruitment |United States military |Islamic State |militarization |Targeting Youth |Socialization of Violence |Martyrdom |Glorification of War

Streszczenie

This paper analyses the nuances of opposing systems of government and how they build societies around a militarized culture to attract children to their ranks. This will include a case study of the strategies implemented by the United States’ Military to maintain an all-volunteer force by encouraging enlistment and targeting youth with heavy advertisement and enticing benefits; and an additional case study comparing the U.S. Military strategies to the sophisticated and forceful tactics of the Islamic State caliphate to conscript all members of society into their ideology and world of perpetual violence. Extreme differences are noted that come naturally when comparing a democratic republic to a violent authoritarian extremist organization, but there are also significant similarities, as the United States acts as a sovereign state and the Islamic State seeks to become its own sovereign entity. This paper focuses on the recruitment of children as child soldiers, terrorists, and martyrs, who continue to be used in conflicts around the world, even where international humanitarian law is widely recognized and made legitimate on a global scale. Consequences of recruiting children will be recorded, and broader suggestions pulled from various think takes and international organizations will be woven into the conclusive remarks.


INFORMACJE O AUTORZE

University of Texas at Austin, USA
Kayla Ritchie
The Politics of Security: How Social Constructions are utilized in the Securitization of Migration
67 – 81
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

US Immigration policy |Social constructionism |securitization |Unauthorized immigrants

Streszczenie

This work explores the relationship between social constructions and the securitization process. The theoretical basis of securitization should be married to the concept of social constructions when exploring the securitizing actor addressal of contact between a target group and a referent object. To illustrate this, this paper discusses the connection between US immigration policies and negative perceptions of unauthorized immigrants in the US. This leads to an analysis of why the phenomena of migration is treated as a major threat to domestic safety. The work demonstrates how and why importance is placed on securitization of a specific targeted group, unauthorized immigrants in the US, and the lengths taken to maintain their marginalization in society. This paper argues that negative conceptions of the worthiness and deservedness of unauthorized immigrants must be instilled and widely accepted to maintain and expand the power of the homeland defense infrastructure.


INFORMACJE O AUTORZE

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, USA
Albert James Contreras
The Return of European Foreign fighters from Iraq and Syria
82 – 93
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

terrorism |Foreign terrorist fighters |FTF |hybrid warfare

Streszczenie

This paper examines the history of foreign fighters in the Soviet Afghan War, Bosnia, and both Chechen conflicts. It then looks at the lasting impact of foreign fighters who fought in those regions. The paper concludes with a discussion on the future implications for Europe whose citizens have fought as foreign fighters in Iraq and Syria and who now may possibly decide to return home as the wars subside and whether it is possible to draw out any lessons learned from previous experiences from the Soviet Afghan, Bosnian, and both Chechnian Wars.


INFORMACJE O AUTORZE

University of Texas at El Paso, USA
Meghan Lovett
The Growing Threat of the Alt-Right: Who Are They, How They Recruit, and How to Prevent Further Growth
94 – 111
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

Extremism |Alt-Right |Neo-Nazi |terrorism

Streszczenie

This paper attempts to analyze the new international threat of the Alt-Right. It describes the difficulties surrounding defining the Alt-Right, the spread of ideology to European countries, the rhetoric and recruitment methods used by the Alt-Right and provides potential solutions to prevent recruitment in the future. This paper attempts to define the Alt-Right and provide clarity about what it entails within the ideology. It also describes the current problems associated with the lack of a formal definition. The paper then analyzes the spread of the ideology in Europe and describes the differences and similarities between the ideologies within the U.S. and Europe. Additionally, the paper provides insight into the recruitment methods, targets, and rhetoric of the Alt-Right as well gives possible strategies to help deter young people from being recruited.


INFORMACJE O AUTORZE

University of Texas at Austin, USA
Alex Thompson
Democracy and Social Stability in the Age of Post-Truth, Fake News, and Social Media
112 – 123
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

Post-truth |fake news |Social Media |misinformation |Disinformation |Filter bubble

Streszczenie

The following research paper intends to highlight how Democracy and social stability are being affected by the changing factors in our political and technological discourse. The research includes the usage of post-truth, fake news, and misinformation and disinformation in political discourse as well as recent examples that have brought these actions into the public spotlight. The paper will also look at methods that the aggressors are using to spread their message such as troll factories, propaganda, and social media. Lastly, the paper will look at different cases of attacks on Democracy and destabilization of social stability in those countries. These cases include the terrorist attacks on Sri Lanka and their response to control public violence and panic, the 2018 US Intelligence Community response and proposals to stop meddling in US elections such as the midterm election, and proposals on how private sector companies that are in charge of social media platforms need to take measures to delete fake news and deweaponize their platform for terrorists.


INFORMACJE O AUTORZE

Miami University, USA
Gar Lovejoy
Inside the Dark Web
124 – 145
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

Dark Web |Tor |Bitcoin |Hidden Wiki

Streszczenie

The Dark Web and its widely abused platforms are a major security concern for many governments today. The following paper will explore the evolving landscape and emerging threats found on the Dark Web. This article aims to provide context, and appropriate tactics that governments can employ in countering this new age of global terrorism and crime. As well as a comprehensive review of the tools and services associated with the Dark Web.


INFORMACJE O AUTORZE

University of Pittsburgh, USA
Mason C. Shuya
Mobilizing the Population in Reaction to Russian Aggression
146 – 165
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

hybrid warfare |Self-defense forces |Asymmetrical conflict |Russian aggression

Streszczenie

Russian aggression in Ukraine and other countries of the former Soviet space have increased tensions and reinforced questions of the state of security. In response, the citizenry of these countries has flocked to volunteer in self-defense forces that are being adopted by respective Ministries of Defense as reserve personnel in the case of invasion. These countries, and the Russian Federation, have opted to adopt asymmetrical means of warfare. While Estonia, Poland, and Ukraine have been reliant on American military support to supplement their own efforts, the Russian Federation has also been dependent on American military literature and using it to reshape their own military methodologies. Through a country case method, this article seeks to review and analyze the experiences of Estonia, Poland, and Ukraine in reaction to perceived Russian aggression.


INFORMACJE O AUTORZE

University of Texas at El Paso, USA
Seth Kraman
Guidance Required for Protections of Cyber Participation in Hostilities Under International Humanitarian Law
166 – 178
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

International Committee of the Red Cross |International humanitarian law |IHL |Armed conflict |Direct participation in hostilities |Targeting civilians |Cyber operations

Streszczenie

Since the Second World War, the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and its Additional Protocols were developed to protect civilians from the consequences of armed conflicts by distinguishing them from combatants. With the advent of non-State armed groups and foreign participation in non-international conflicts, this distinction required clarification of the rules pertaining to the protection of civilians participating in armed conflicts. In 2009, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) released the Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under International Humanitarian Law, providing recommendations for such situations. However, the emergence of cyber warfare now requires that this guidance be further expanded. The abuses resulting from the United States’ War on Terror illustrate the consequences of vague consensus on terrorism and gaps in international law. Independent interpretations, such as the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare (2013) and Tallinn Manual 2.0 (2017), provide the groundwork for the ICRC, but the continued existence of numerous interpretations surrounding cyber operations allow for the undermining of civilian protections. Thus, it is necessary for the ICRC to establish official protections of civilians for cyber participation in hostilities.


INFORMACJE O AUTORZE

Miami University, USA
Eric Nesbitt
The Scope of Cryptocurrency in the Information Age
179 – 193
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

Bitcoin |cryptocurrency |Security Threats |Blockchain |Peer-To-Peer (P2P) Network |Public Ledger |Cryptography |Hash |Proof-of-work Mechanism |Fiat Currencies |Ransomware |Encryption |mining |Bitcoin ATM |Altcoins |Terrorist Financing

Streszczenie

In this information age we are living in, we are on the cusp of a major technological paradigm shift that will have reverberating effects through every aspect of society; cryptocurrency implementation into major security threats has the potential of altering the security world as we know it. The purpose of paper is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of what cryptocurrency is, blockchain technology, the use of cryptocurrency by illicit actors, terrorist organization’s use of cryptocurrency, and ways in which law enforcement/security agencies can prevent the nefarious use of cryptocurrency. Additionally, this paper aims to provide resources to further expand on discussed topics; ultimately helping academics, decision makers, and policy setters with advancing the understanding of cryptocurrency in our modern world.


INFORMACJE O AUTORZE

Grand Valley State University in Michigan, USA
Pobierz cały numer
1 – 198
PDF