Numer 27 (36) 2020
Spaces in Film

Redaktor: Andrzej Szpulak

Spis treści
Strony
Pobierz
Marek Hendrykowski
Stereotyp w przestrzeni symbolicznej
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.01
5 – 19
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Słowa kluczowe

prawda | stereotyp | znaczenie | obraz | Znak | kłamstwo

Streszczenie

The subject of the article is stereotypes considered in the context of symbolic space. This redefinition and reconsideration of the complex issue of stereotypes and stereotyping of diferent kinds in art and everyday life aims at demonstrating the operational usefulness of this concept in contemporary humanistic re-ection, including the sphere of art, everyday life and various fields of scientific research.


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Daria Mazur
Między kosmopolityzmem a nazizmem – konteksty przestrzeni symbolicznych czterech filmów nakręconych przez niemieckiego operatora Franza Weihmayra
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.02
21 – 40
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Słowa kluczowe

nazizm | przestrzeń symboliczna | kosmopolityzm | kino nazistowskie | kinematografia niemiecka | polskie kino po 1939 | Franz Weihmayr

Streszczenie

The paper is a comparative analysis of the circumstances influencing symbolic spaces in four movies by Franz Weihmayr in the years 1931–1942: Dzikie Pola [Wild Fields], Halutzim, La Habanera and The Great Love. The analysis allows for delineating the development of the German cinematographer Franz Weihmayr’s career, which, in the context of historical-political and ideological-artistic circumstances, can serve as an example of a broader phenomenon: a particular fluctuation of choices made by German cinematographers over the Weimar, Nazi, and post-war periods. This analysis is of pioneering importance because of the paucity of publication heretofore dedicated to Weihmayr’s works, who at the time worked together with, among others, Leni Riefenstahl, Frank Wysbar, and Hans Detlef Sierck, as well as Polish directors, such as Józef Lejtes and Aleksander Ford. The framework for semiotic analyses of the symbolic spaces of the movies mentioned above are two groups of contexts connected with ideas stemming from contradictory bases: the idea of cosmopolitism and the idea of Nazism.


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Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy

Karolina Kostyra
Szafa marzeń. Dziecięce kryjówki w E.T. Stevena Spielberga
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.03
41 – 55
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Słowa kluczowe

Steven Spielberg | kino amerykańskie

Streszczenie

The filmmakers made efforts to present reality from a child’s viewpoint. Among the strategies applied for this purpose, we find a detailed approach to grasping the atmosphere of children’s bedrooms. The wardrobe, intimate lighting, cozy nooks and child’s props allow the creation of a space of autonomy and the uncanny effect, which slips away from adults’ perception. The author uses works on the anthropology of place, the psychoanalysis of dreams, film studies analyses of E.T. and also the history of cinematic representation of children’s worlds in order to describe the specificity of domestic space in Spielberg’s movie. At the same time, the author proposes that E.T. can be interpreted as a movie about the relative independence of children’s worlds in relation to the overpowering and stiflingAmerican suburbs. If we follow the proposed interpretation, then the popular judgment of E.T. as a conservative and family narration from Reagan’s days would seem to be too one-sided.


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Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach

Krystian Przybylski
„Zamknij drzwi”, czyli wykorzystanie przestrzeni filmowej do uobecnienia sacrum na przykładzie filmu Sieranevada Cristi Puiu
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.04
57 – 69
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Słowa kluczowe

religia | sacrum | przestrzeń filmowa | drzwi | ceremonia | ortodoksja | rytuał | Cristi Puiu|
kino rumuńskie

Streszczenie

The article analyzes how the main representative of the Romanian New Wave – Cristi Puiu – uses the visual space of an apartment for staging and presenting the visible and hidden spheres of reality. His film Sieranevada, focusing on a family meeting on the occasion of religious ceremonies commemorating recently deceased senior family member, shows the possibilities of using the language of realism to appeal to the spirituality present in everyday life and to unveil Transcendence.


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu

Adam Domalewski
Między minimalizmem a melodramatem. Przestrzeń filmowa w kinie rumuńskiej nowej fali
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.05
71 – 92
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Słowa kluczowe

komunizm | minimalizm | kino rumuńskie | rumuńska nowa fala | melodramat | semiotyka obrazu filmowego

Streszczenie

The starting point for considering the means of creating and designing a film space in Romanian New Wave cinema is the thesis that Romanian film art in the 21st century is an artistic response to the times of communism and that images of the post-socialist architectural space – their multi-faceted functionalization in film mise-en-scéne – are the key method of evoking memories of the past. The article discusses, via the example of movies by Crisitian Mungiu, Corneliu Porumboiu and Cristi Puiu, (1) ways of depicting the “closing” of film characters in the cramped interiors of their apartments and (2) film images of individuals’ alienation in public spaces, both of them allusively referring to the times of the oppressive Nicolae Ceaușescu regime. The most important cinematographic devices used bythe authors of the Romanian New Wave cinema include: seemingly static shots, which, however, are filmed with a camera that is constantly gently moving and observing, and tableau shots. A common feature of all the considered works is the panopticism of the film world: the private and public spaces designed in them easily become a place of constant, panoptical observation. In the summary, theauthor remarks on and briefly discusses the coexistence of the aesthetics of minimalism / realism with the melodramatic elements in the cinematic structure of Romanian New Wave films.


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu

Grażyna Świętochowska
Przestrzeń filmowa jako przestrzeń wiedzy. O filmach Ray i Charlesa Eamesów
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.06
93 – 116
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Słowa kluczowe

kino i design | kino i architektura | Ray Eames | Charles Eames

Streszczenie

Through the whole period of their design output, Ray and Charles Eames used film as a tool. First, they referred to film when they tried to prove their artistic activity, then for the purposes of advertisement and finally, they got to large, highly-circulated global multimedia projects. Behind them were state and corporate subjects. In all film activities, they reveal an innovative attitude which negotiated the current techniques of production. Each time, they were able to create new value. They revolutionized advertising and educational films. In every attempt at this genre, they did not give up the humanistic approach. They presented scientific knowledge, offered in the form of standard high entertainment.


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Uniwersytet Gdański

Krzysztof Kozłowski
„Jupiter and Beyond the Infinite”. 2001: Odyseja kosmiczna Stanleya Kubricka
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.07
117 – 128
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Słowa kluczowe

Stanley Kubrick | Odyseja kosmiczna

Streszczenie

The article deals with the relationship between film and painting, as well as the sciences (physics, cosmology) of the 20th century. It introduces the historical context important for the time when Kubrick’s film was made, and addresses the issue of abstraction in cinema, contemporary painting and cosmology, confronting artistic and scientific ideas (the models of the Universe). The starting point for the detailed analysis was “autonomous abstract film” (Alicja Helman), which as a film inside a film combines various cinematic types and genres. The analysis of takes and sequences of this film inside a film made it possible to decipher the director’s idea, which is expressed in intra-film references. The particular results of the research were compared with the possible iconographic context (Gerhard Richter). The inclusion of a diagnosis obtained on the basis of materials examined in the Kubrick Archives in London (Kamil Kościelski), and references to cultural tradition (Plato), supplement the aforementioned considerations in an important way.


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu

Marcin Maron
Functions of screen space in shots by Mieczysław Jahoda in the example of his first feature films: Zimowy zmierzch and Pętla
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.08
129 – 142
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Słowa kluczowe

przestrzeń filmowa | Mieczysław Jahoda | sztuka filmowa | Stanisław Lenartowicz | Wojciech Jerzy Has | polska szkoła filmowa

Streszczenie

The text is devoted to discussing the formation methods and the functions of screen space in shots by Mieczysław Jahoda in the films Zimowy zmierzch (directed by S. Lenartowicz) and Pętla (directed by W.J. Has). Mieczysław Jahoda is presented as one of the main initiators of stylistic changes in the films of Polish School in the mid 1950s. The analysis concerns the camera means applied by Jahoda in order to obtain screen effects: light, frame composition, photographic optics and perspective transformation. The film shots by Mieczysław Jahoda are characterized by an exceptional ability to evoke mental space, emotions, memory and imagination via the shapes of screen space. Their feature is a special esthetization aimed at creating the atmosphere of films, as well as symbolic and cultural references.


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Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie

Iga Pękala
Przestrzeń poza kadrem – o sensualnym wymiarze zdjęć filmowych Emmanuela Lubezkiego
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.09
143 – 155
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Słowa kluczowe

przestrzeń filmowa | Emmanuel Lubezki | Alejandro Gonzales Iñárritu | Alfonso Cuarón | Terrence Malick | znaczenie ekspresji filmowej | sensualna teoria kina

Streszczenie

The article presents an analysis of the sensual potential of film images via the example of cooperation between operator Emmanuel Lubezki and three directors: Alejandro Gonzales Iñárritu, Alfonso Cuarón and Terrence Malick. The impact of reconstruction of film space on the sensual impressions of viewers in the context of the American theory of somatic cinema was also analyzed. What influence does the dimension of cinematographic cooperation have on the concept of authorial cinema?


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Uniwersytet Wrocławski

Marek Hendrykowski
Trudna przestrzeń. O filmie Roberta Stando Strach ma wielkie oczy
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.10
157 – 167
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Słowa kluczowe

ochrona | bezpieczeństwo | dziecko | szkoła | Robert Stando

Streszczenie

The article analyses and interprets Robert Stando’s little-known educational film Strach ma wielkie oczy [Fear has large eyes]. The film was made in 1965 and produced by the Documentary Film Studio in Warsaw. The author explores the original character of the film, reconstructing the stylistic and compositional techniques used by filmmakers, among others, in the field of cinematography (underwater photography), editing, word function, music, sound effects etc.


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Marek Kosma Cieśliński
Destrukcja jako tworzywo. Ikonografia ruin Warszawy w polskim kinie dokumentalnym po II wojnie światowej
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.11
169 – 181
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Słowa kluczowe

Warszawa | zniszczenie | druga wojna światowa | ikonografia ruin | tworzenie

Streszczenie

The image of Warsaw in ruins after World War II is an important motif in Polish documentary and feature cinema in the years 1944–1956. In the text, I discuss the images of the city captured by the first chroniclers as ‘basic’, which then became archetypical icons of the city’s destruction. I point out that the aesthetics of destruction, recorded in Andrzej Panufnik’s early film Ballada f-moll [Ballade in f minor], Jerzy Bossak’s Most [Bridge] and Tadeusz Makarczyński’s Suita warszawska [Warsaw Suite] proved to be exemplary for other artists. I show that the destruction of urban and architectural structures was inspiring for directors: it served as a documentary record, a basis forconstructing scripts, and dominant aesthetic, often providing a persuasive argument and serving to shape emotions. References to the resentments of the audience and the anatomy of the ruins were among the elements that shaped the ideological attitudes of various parts of Polish society. For some directors it was also a catharsis after the trauma of the Holocaust.


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Wyższa Szkoła Handlowa we Wrocławiu

Dominik Wierski
Boks w kadrze. Wybrane strategie inscenizacyjne w polskich filmach o boksie z lat sześćdziesiątych i siedemdziesiątych XX wieku
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.12
183 – 196
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Słowa kluczowe

przestrzeń filmowa | Bokser | Julian Dziedzina | Papa Stamm | Krzysztof Rogulski | Klincz | Piotr Andrejew | Szkoła uczuć|
Edward Żebrowski | Powrót | Filip Bajon | sport w kinie

Streszczenie

In his article, Dominik Wierski analyses and interprets selected staging strategies in Polish films about boxing. The films cited in the text were made in the 1960s and 1970s. It was a dynamic period in Polish cinematography, but also a great time for Polish boxing. The author wonders how filmmakers showed space related to boxing - training rooms, changing rooms, stands and the boxing ring. Selected films, belonging to the most important examples of Polish filmmakers’ insight into the world of boxing, are analyzed in the terms of their use of colors, sound, camera travel, rhythm and pace etc. The purpose of the text is to answer the question of whether Polish films of the ‘60s and ‘70s developed an integral way of discussing boxing and showing its most characteristic spaces.


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Pałac Młodzieży w Bydgoszczy
Wojciech Sitek
Kolor pieniędzy. Filmowy styl Michaela Manna
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.13
197 – 214
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Słowa kluczowe

Michael Mann | estetyka późnego kapitalizmu

Streszczenie

According to film studies experts, Michael Mann’s movies has the look and the smell of reality. The polisensoric character of his works is used to exhibit the aura of non-screen reality. Michael Mann uses narrative and stylistic elements to show the destructive side of social inequalities. In his genre films, he is presenting themes of social injustice and toxic corporate system (which are often hidden behind the elegant façade of late capitalism’s aesthetics).


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Uniwersytet Wrocławski

Bogusław Skowronek
Warstwa werbalna ścieżki dźwiękowej jako element współbudowania przestrzeni w filmie
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.14
215 – 223
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Słowa kluczowe

Stanley Kubrick | przestrzeń filmowa | Woody Allen | Quentin Tarantino | Marek Koterski | Jan Jakub Kolski | Władysław Pasikowski | Wojciech Smarzowski

Streszczenie

The article presents the most typical ways of co-building various types of film space through the verbal layer of the soundtrack: inside the frame and outside of it, diegetic and non-diegetic, and narrative and non-narrative. In order to discuss linguistic ways of co-creating space, the author used the tenets of mediolinguistics and the ideas of the textual image of the world and the linguistic image of the world.


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Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie

Hanna Przybysz
Neurobiologia na tropach uniwersalizmu percepcji sztuki. Prawa estetyki V.S. Ramachandrana i W. Hirsteina w kontekście dzieła sztuki filmowej. Studium przypadku: Nadja Michaela Almereydy
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.15
225 – 245
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Słowa kluczowe

estetyka | neuroestetyka | sztuka filmowa | Michael Almereyda | percepcja wizualna | V.S. Ramachandran | W. Hirstein

Streszczenie

Vilayanur S. Ramachandran and William Hirstein are the authors of the concept of a work of art understood as an exaggerated stimulus in the creative process. The aim of art, according to them, is (a) to show the essence of something in a perceptually accessible way, and (b) to evoke a strong reaction from the recipient. Scientists say that the aim of art is not to perfectly reproduce reality, but to present the very essence of an object, scene or event by exaggerating its most characteristic features, while ignoring non-essential features. The effect of this treatment is a super stimulus, which is a supernatural stimulus that does not exist in the real world. Researchers have proposed seven universal – evolutionarily and culturally – neurological laws of aesthetic experience in relation to the visual arts (painting and sculpture). I propose to extend the tool apparatus of neuroaesthetics from the area of unimodal arts to a work of film art. It is an interesting tool for research into film aesthetics and masterpieces. In this paper, I will discuss these laws and make a representative analysis of them in a visual case study of Michael Almereyda’s film Nadja (1994). The main goal of my work is to show the stricto naturalistic position. Man is not aware that the first stages of cognitive perception have a significant impact on his interest in art, what he pays attention to, and on aesthetic experiences on a sensual, unconscious level. It is an interdisciplinary attempt to provide consistency of research approaches in the humanities with the naturalistic one in the area of natural sciences, which shows that on some levels we are very similar to each other and only in the process of ontogenesis do we acquire individuality – that we are governed by universal laws, not only those related to ourindividual interests and tastes.


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Barbara Lena Gierszewska
„Nie zapomnij mnie”. O filmowo-ekonomicznej przestrzeni w dziejowości Wrocławia 1896–1945
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.16
247 – 258
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Słowa kluczowe

Dolny Śląsk | kino | kinematografia | Wrocław | czas wolny

Streszczenie

The author of the reviewed book for the first time shows how and why film preferences of the inhabitants of Breslau in the years 1896–1932 and 1933–1945 differed in relation to the choices of cinema audiences in other European cities during the same period. He uses the POPSTAT statistical method proposed for this purpose by the German researcher Joseph Potter. He also uses the scientific ideas of „attraction cinema” developed by André Gaudreault. He bases his research on analyzing film success rankings and to measure viewer preferences.


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Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach

Marcin Kochowicz
Bogdan Marciniak (1958–2018)
259 – 278
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Słowa kluczowe

Bogdan Marciniak


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Miejskie Biuro Wystaw Artystycznych w Lesznie
Zbigniew Kloch
Andrzej Stasiuk, tekstowe figury doświadczenia
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.17
281 – 288
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Słowa kluczowe

metafora | doświadczenie | figura | powieść drogi | symbolizacja | Andrzej Stasiuk

Streszczenie

The aim of the article is to show the role of various metaphorical practices that are a dominant structural feature of Andrzej Stasiuk’s prose, used to construct his textual reality. Comparisons, metaphorical statements, and enumerations represent textual figures that transform the described experience of the world from the perspective of the speaking subject, subjectivising and constructing reality, rather than merely representing it. In both his novels and feuilletons, Stasiuk relates his experiences of the world in different temporal orders, constructing them on a textual level. Yet his thoroughly subjective prose preserves the conventions of realism. At the same time, Stasiuk quite often refers to the genre of the road novel, both in his fiction and in his journalism. Textual figures of experience are his basic means of describing the presented world.


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Uniwersytet Warszawski
Polska Akademia Nauk

Paweł Sitkiewicz
Marsjanie. Borowczyk i Lenica na Międzynarodowym Konkursie Filmu Eksperymentalnego w Brukseli
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/i.2020.36.18
289 – 301
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Słowa kluczowe

film animowany | film eksperymentalny | Jan Lenica | Walerian Borowczyk | Polska Szkoła Animacji

Streszczenie

The text describes the backstage of the legendary International Experimental Film Competition in Brussels, which accompanied the Expo-58 Exhibition at a turning point of the political thaw in Eastern and Central Europe. The most important representatives of avant-garde cinema and auteur animation of three generations took part in this event. The Grand Prix was awarded to The House of Walerian Borowczyk and Jan Lenica. The prize became the ticket to a European career for these two young filmmakers. The competition was also remembered as a symbolic beginning of the “Polish school of animation” (or the so-called “Polish school of experimental film”) on the global film market. The author of the article also writes about a difficult return to Poland, about a cash prize that caused many problems, about the successes of Polish films in Brussels, and about the reception of The House in Poland and abroad. Finally, he tries to demonstrate why this bleak and difficult to understand film, which builds opposition to the optimism of Expo Exhibitions, won the main prize, beating over 300 competitors from around the world.


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Uniwersytet Gdański

Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
MNiSW: 70
ISSN 1731-450X
Instytut Filmu, Mediów i Sztuk Audiowizualnych
IC 69,33