Numer 9 (2/2019)
Pedagogical theories and philosophy
Redaktorzy: Wojciech Hanuszkiewicz, Anna Szklarska
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Wojciech Hanuszkiewicz,
Anna Szklarska
Introduction to the issue: Pedagogical theories and philosophy
181 – 182
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Wojciech Hanuszkiewicz
Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie

Anna Szklarska
Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie

Phillipp Thomas
Philosophy as transformative practice: a proposal for a new concept of philosophy that better suits philosophy education
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24917/20841043.9.2.1
185 – 199
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Słowa kluczowe

philosophy of education |theories of education |practical turn and philosophy |modern scientific paradigm and philosophy |subject‐specific didactics philosophy |philosophy education |philosophy at school

Streszczenie

The source of the following considerations is the observation that academic philosophy at universities does not fit well with philosophy education processes, e.g., those at school. Both sides seem to be separate from each other. I assume that the two areas rely on two very different concepts of philosophy. To work out a concept of philosophy more appropriate to the educational context, I methodically apply the practical turn to our philosophising in very different contexts. Moreover, I elaborate that it is precisely the modern scientific paradigm that underlies philosophy as scientific practice and that the former represents a problematic con-striction of philosophising in educational contexts. For where the ideal is objective scientific knowledge — from which everything subjective has been removed — there can be no deeper transformation of the subject through philosophy. My thesis is that philosophy is better suited to the educational context as transformative and not as scientific practice. As a consequence, the question arises as to whether the study of philosophy on teacher training courses needs a new impulse in the direction of philosophy as transformative practice.


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Pädagogische Hochschule Weingarten, Niemcy

Wojciech Hanuszkiewicz
Concepts of pedagogy as an applied philosophy: Paul Natorp, John Dewey and Sergius Hessen
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24917/20841043.9.2.2
201 – 223
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Słowa kluczowe

John Dewey |pedagogy and philosophy |neo‐Kantianism |pragmatism |humanistic pedagogy |social pedagogy |educational community |reconstruction |work |creativity |social critique |Paul Natorp |Sergius Hessen

Streszczenie

Paul Natorp, John Dewey and Sergius Hessen are usually considered to represent three different philosophical and pedagogical doctrines developed at the turn of the Twentieth century. These are, respectively: neo‐Kantianism, pragmatism and humanistic pedagogy widely rooted in Wil‐ helm Dilthey’s philosophy. Contrary to this common classification, Hessen himself described his own concept of pedagogy as an applied philosophy as a continuation of Natorp’s thought. However, Hessen also noted that an approach very similar to his one can be found (with some restrictions) in John Dewey’s theory. In this case, the fundamental issue is to determine the relationship between philosophy and pedagogical theory and practise. The main part of this article will identify the specificity of this relationship: the specificity implied by the concept of pedagogy understood as applied philosophy. The concept of pedagogy, understood as an applied philosophy in its theoretical and practical aspects, is the basis for critical reconstruction of social life in general. It is the opinion shared by all three philosophers that this type of reconstruction should be based on the communal dimension of basic social interactions, that is, on the communal dimension of work. The only way for the renewal of a different form of social life leads through regaining through them an essential communal dimension of human work. All three authors agreed that to regain the communal dimension of human work by another form of social interaction would only be possible when certain conditions are present; that is, when work will be permeated by individual creativity. The presence of such conditions shall be ensured by the educational community. Thus, the educational community should be a starting and end point for any critical social reconstruction as well as for the pedagogy understood as an applied philosophy.


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Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
Patrizia Breil
Altering identities. Possibilities of understanding identity in phenomenological pedagogy
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24917/20841043.9.2.3
225 – 235
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Słowa kluczowe

Jean-Paul Sartre |Identity |Simone de Beauvoir |Bernhard Waldenfels |alterity |education |phenomenological pedagogy |Phenomenology |Wilfried Lippitz |responsivity

Streszczenie

In one way or another, the other plays an important role in educational settings. Over the last few decades, the recourse to philosophical phenomenology has proved to be helpful for the discussion of this topic. Coming from this thematic direction, this article focuses on the other in its constitutive function for the construction of identity. Both within the phenomenologist Bernhard Waldenfels’ theory of responsivity as well as in the pedagogue Wilfried Lippitz’ theory of alterity, the other is a structural part of the self. It will be shown that within these theories the possible dangers of an encounter with the other cannot be addressed in an adequate way. However, this is especially important in educational contexts. Therefore, with regard to the philosophies of Jean‐Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir, I would like to present two additional phenomenological approaches from which the pedagogical discussion can benefit. Both Sartre and Beauvoir put great focus on possible obstacles regarding the en‐ counter with the other. Whereas Sartre identifies negativity as an essential part of human existence, Beauvoir enriches these thoughts with an ethical component. Against the background of these philosophies, the other comes into view as a possible source of both objectification and empowerment. Lastly, the article shows that an implementation of these considerations in teacher training can lead to a deeper understanding of the constitution of identity and the inherent possibilities of any interaction with the other.


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Universität Tübingen, Niemcy

Urszula Zbrzeźniak
Materiality of body, materiality of world — remarks on emancipatory education: Illich, Freire and contemporary political philosophy
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24917/20841043.9.2.4
237 – 251
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Słowa kluczowe

body |material condition |emancipation |Paulo Freire |Ivan Illich

Streszczenie

The paper addresses the issue of the corporeal dimension of the learning process. The problem of the material side of education has emerged within the emancipatory education project, but, as will be argued, this was limited to a critique inspired by Marxist tradition. The perspective on the materiality of education offered by Freire’s and Illich’s works can be significantly enriched by contemporary political thought. The latter perceives materiality in its complexity, that is, as economic conditions but also as the inherent needs stemming from our bodily condition. As will be demonstrated, the contemporary reflection could serve as a critique, one on the limited character of Freire’s and Illich’s emancipatory education, as well as providing ideas which might expand their project.


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Uniwersytet Warszawski

Antoni Torzewski
Modern moral reinterpretation of Jesus and its value to the philosophy of religion
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24917/20841043.9.2.5
253 – 269
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Słowa kluczowe

religion |Immanuel Kant |ethics |morality |moral religion |contemporary philosophy |Jesus |Gotthold Ephraim Lessing |Ludwig Feuerbach |reinterpretation |German philosophy |enlightenment

Streszczenie

The moral reinterpretation of Jesus conducted by Kant, Lessing and Feuerbach, is an interesting matter when it comes to the philosophy of religion. The abovementioned German philosophers claimed that Jesus ought to be understood only as a moral archetype and a revolutionist in morality. This concept arose on the grounds of moral religion which was one of the most interesting ideas of the Enlightenment. Thus, exploring this moral reinterpretation of Jesus is just an excuse to study the concept of moral religion. Despite the fact that this idea is no longer current, it has immense influence on the contemporary philosophy of religion. Therefore, understanding the concept of moral religion can broaden the context of the contemporary discussion.


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Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy

Paweł Wójs
About the usefulness and harmfulness of forgetting the German guilt
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24917/20841043.9.2.6
271 – 287
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Słowa kluczowe

World War II |memory |Friedrich Nietzsche |German guilt |guilt |forgetting guilt |boundary situations |Karl Jaspers |Hannah Arendt

Streszczenie

The distinction between kinds of guilt has not lost its power to illuminate matters, and it remains a great tool to study the consequences of forgetting guilt of any kind. Karl Jaspers made the distinction between kinds of guilt mainly to ease the Germans coping with guilt, as all of them were blamed for the evil that happened under Adolf Hitler. Jaspers believed that in using this distinction the German nation could have come back to its origins, and thus purified, take its part in the possible future unity of the world and of all mankind. But soon after World War II ended, a confluence of political, social, psychological and philosophical factors contributed to a situation in which a large number of culprits were not brought to account: criminals were rarely rightly punished. In addition, many Germans believing in the ideology of National Socialism felt no guilt in terms of morality; they downplayed the political guilt; they negated the very existence of the metaphysical guilt. The process of forgetting guilt occurred.


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Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
Paweł Sznajder
The idea of incarnation revisited by Jung, Gadamer and Henry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24917/20841043.9.2.7
289 – 302
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Słowa kluczowe

language |incarnation |Hans‑Georg Gadamer |Michel Henry |Carl Gustav Jung |Individuation |body

Streszczenie

The idea of incarnation is one of the Christian theological concepts that has exerted the strongest influence on philosophical thought in Europe and which was repeatedly referred to in the twentieth century. The paper presents three reinterpretations of this biblical category. Carl Gustav Jung interprets incarnation in the spirit of Gnosticism, as a process of the psychological individuation of God and man; Hans‑Georg Gadamer employs the idea of the inner Word, Verbum interius, to analyse the dogmas of incarnation and the Trinity: seeking in them a solution to the mystery of language; while Michel Henry reaches for the Bible and theology to face anew the issue of human corporeality. These attempts to rethink the theological aspects of the Incarnation of the Son of God reveal the role of this notion in the development of modern psychology, the hermeneutic philosophy of language as well as in anthropology. At the same time, a philosophical reinterpretation of incarnation provides an impulse to rephrase the questions about the relationship between philosophy and theology, as well as faith and reason, good and evil, the relationship between God and man, the mind and the body, as well as speech and thinking. On the other hand, provisional answers to these questions may rekindle theological thought and contribute to the revival of reflection on issues such as the Holy Trinity, the Immaculate and Virgin Conception, or a privation theory of evil. The article provides a starting point for just such a multi‑faceted analysis.


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Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
Andrzej Gielarowski
Mistyka i życie Relacja religijna w fenomenologii Michela Henry’ego
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24917/20841043.9.2.8
303 – 316
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Słowa kluczowe

religia |Bóg |fenomenologia życia |filozofia życia |Mistrz Eckhart |Artur Schopenhauer

Streszczenie

Michel Henry, francuski filozof z kręgu „fenomenologii niewidzialnego” ( Zahavi, 2012: 315), za źródłowy fenomen uznał życie, które opisał jako immanentną i niewidzialną podstawę fenomenologiczną wszelkiego jawienia się. Zarazem życie zostało przez niego opisane jako więź między skończonym ludzkim życiem a nieskończonym Życiem absolutnym...


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Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie

Paweł Pruski
Probabilistic kingdom: problem of objectivity in contemporary science
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24917/20841043.9.2.9
317 – 327
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Słowa kluczowe

philosophical interpretations of probability |the objectivity of probability |probabilism |determinism |scientific realism

Streszczenie

In modern science, the theory of probability is one of the basic tools. Scientists using probability often refer to its objective interpretation. They emphasize that their probabilistic hypotheses concern objective facts, not degrees of belief. Accordingly, the following questions arise: What is the meaning of this type of probabilistic hypothesis? Is the assumption of objectivity necessary? The paper addresses these questions by analyzing objective probability in the context of the scientific debate on determinism. Two types of arguments will be presented. On the one hand, there is the assertion that objective probability can exist only in an indeterministic world. Then, on the other hand — I analyze the assertions of those who believe in the co‑existence of objective probability and determinism. As a result I show that the acceptance of deterministic and indeterministic fields as possible areas where objective probability can occur is extremely problematic. Depending on the chosen area we encounter different types of problems. Therefore, I show that a significant number of these problems are associated with the acceptance of incorrect metaphysical assumptions. And finally, I postulate that the objectivity of probability (and assumptions pertaining to it) can be reduced (without any losses) to the epistemic variant.


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Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie

Paulina Sosnowska
Die Bedeutung der Bildung: Im Gespräch mit Martin Heidegger und Hannah Arendt. Ein Vortrag gehalten am 18.06.2018 an der Universität Augsburg
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24917/20841043.9.2.10
331 – 345
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Słowa kluczowe

Hannah Arendt |totalitarianism |Martin Heidegger |university |education |modernity |Bildung |thinking |politics |public sphere

Streszczenie

The text is a lecture delivered in German at Augsburg University in 2018. Its aim was to share with German colleagues from the Faculty of Philosophy and Social Sciences (including both Philosophy and Education) the research whose effect was the publication of Hannah Arendt and Martin Heidegger. Philosophy, modernity and education (American edition 2019). The thesis of this lecture (and the book) is that Arendt’s answer to Heidegger’s philosophy, intelligible only within the wide context of both thinkers’ struggles with the philosophical tradition of the West, also opens up a new horizon of conceptualizing the relationship between philosophy and education. This enterprise begins with a critical reconstruction of concepts that traditionally connected education to philosophy. Thereafter, it is a development of Arendt’s thesis of the broken thread of tradition, situated in the wider context of Heideggerian philosophy and his entanglement with Nazism, and consequently, it questions the traditional relationship between philosophy and education. In the final parts of this book returns the problem of dialogue between philosophy, thinking, and university education in times whose political and ethical framework is no longer determined by the continuity of tradition, but the caesura of 20th‑century totalitarianism.


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Uniwersytet Warszawski

Urszula Zbrzeźniak
Małgorzata Przanowska, Listening and acuological education
349 – 350
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Uniwersytet Warszawski

Paweł Kłoczowski
Piotr Bartula, Dzieła zebrane
351 – 352
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Słowa kluczowe

Piotr Bartula


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Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie

Pedagogical University of Cracow
ul. Podchorążych 2
e-ISSN 2084-1043
Department of Philosophy and Sociology
30-084 Kraków
p-ISSN 2083-6635