Numer 54 (3/2019)
On the Paths of Rhetoric, Stylistics and Journalism
Redaktorzy: Monika Worsowicz, Bogumiła Fiołek-Lubczyńska
Spis treści
Strony
Pobierz
Monika Worsowicz,
Bogumiła Fiołek-Lubczyńska
From the editors
9 – 9
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Monika Worsowicz
Uniwersytet Łódzki

Bogumiła Fiołek-Lubczyńska
Uniwersytet Łódzki

Joanna Mikosz
Professor Barbara Bogołębska. An Outstanding Academic, a Wonderful Human Being
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.01
11 – 17
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Uniwersytet Łódzki

Monika Worsowicz
Bibliography of the Works of Professor Barbara Bogołębska
19 – 35
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Uniwersytet Łódzki

Beata Gaj
“Genethliacon” for Barbara Bogołębska, or on the Need to Celebrate Birthdays and Anniversaries
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.02
37 – 50
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Słowa kluczowe

genethliacon | tradition | jubilee | genre

Streszczenie

The most popular Polish dictionaries of literary terms, which offer the definitions of even long lost and extremely particular genres such as Indian or Japanese drama, lack even the basic information on the genre which has existed in European literature (and even outside it) for the last 23 centuries. Genethliacon is a genre which has existed since the times of Callimachus (3rd c. BC), which has been used to celebrate a person’s birth or the anniversary of their birth. Genethliacons may be of a lyrical, dramatic or rhetorical nature, and are still practised today in various languages of the world (in Latin, in line with the ancient tradition). This article provides an outline of the development of the genre within the European tradition. Initial birthday songs, usually connoting Apollo, linked people with light and poetry. What is particularly interesting is that the basic characteristics of genethliacon’s genes have not undergo any major changes throughout the many ages. The celebration of one’s birth, anniversaries and other jubilees still entails wishes, and gift-giving, including poetry developed for the occasion. It may be worthwhile to preserve such a beautiful tradition by giving someone an originally composed genethliacon, e.g. Genetliacon Barbarae Bogołębskae dedicatum.


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Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie


Jakub Zdzisław Lichański
Rhetoric as a Tool for Studying Our Thoughts: What is “Téchne Rhetoriké”?
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.03
51 – 66
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Słowa kluczowe

language | rhetoric | I. Kant | linguistics | science metgodology | M.F. Quintilian | W.C. Booth | R.E. Volkmann|
W. Windelband | der Wiener Kreis

Streszczenie

Rhetoric is not only a methodology of the humanities. It is the most important of the sciences the ancient thinkers left us. It defines not only the methods of argumentation from uncertain premises, and not only is it a theory of text, but most of all it is a tool for organising our thoughts and preparing texts, the aim of which is to convince, but in a way which ensures knowledge and not opinion (Kant). However, the language that we use often fails us. Both Plato and Aristotle warned us about this. At the same time, they developed the foundations for téchne rhetoriké, the systemic shape of which we owe to Quintilian. Rhetoric, as posited by its ancient as well as contemporary researchers, is not a lexicon of gimmicks (Volkmann). It is rather an analogue of logic (Volkmann). As Wilhelm Windelband said: “thanks to grammar and rhetoric we have learnt the correct rules of thinking.” The author discusses not only the history of the studies of rhetoric, but also of language, mainly referring to the traditions of the Vienna Circle (Der Wiener Kreis). Though the achievements of contemporary linguistics and the contemporary studies on the philosophical foundations of linguistic studies are considered, the perspectives defined by Immanuel Kant and the researchers from the Vienna Circle are dominant. The aim of this study was not only to reiterate Windelband’s thesis, but also to verify it more comprehensively.


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Uniwersytet Warszawski


Maria Załęska
Rhetorical Styles in Knowledge Communication
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.04
67 – 80
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Słowa kluczowe

rhetoric | style | metalanguage | academic discourse | scientific popularization

Streszczenie

The author of the article applied the rhetorical framework of three styles (genera dicendi) to highlight some of the communicative practices employed in academic discourse. By utilising the persuasive resources of the plain style, authors focus on the rhetorical purpose of docere/probare, i.e. to teach/to prove. The sober matter-of-factness of the plain style suggests to readers that there is no style at all, convincing them that the content reflects reality without any rhetorical mediation. In choosing the persuasive means of the middle style, researchers combine epistemic and aesthetic goals, trying to reach the rhetoric purpose of delectare, i.e. to delight. An engaging style helps them draw readers into intellectually complex issues. The grand style facilitates the reaching of the rhetorical purpose of movere, i.e. to move or induce action. It serves to present science as a helpful resource for readers to make decisions in their lives, hence it is likely to be used by engaged scholars and public intellectuals.


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Uniwersytet Warszawski


Barbara Sobczak
Self-promotion of TV Stations from a Rhetorical Perspective. Persuasion Techniques
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.05
81 – 103
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Słowa kluczowe

media | persuasion | self-promotion | image creation | technique of persuasion

Streszczenie

This paper discusses the persuasive techniques employed by media broadcasters in the self-promotional activities of television stations. A persuasive technique is understood as a specific manner of conduct of a broadcaster in the process of communication in which in order to increase their impact, a broadcaster emphasises or modifies some elements of the process. The starting point is the assumption that the selection of the persuasive techniques is related to such rhetoric determiners as the context of the operations of the media (consequences of technological changes: unification of media products, overwhelming increase in the amount of information, and ever growing global competition), the intended recipient, and the aim a broadcaster intends to achieve. The research material enabled the identification of the persuasive techniques in the self-promotional activities of media broadcasters emoployed at three levels: (1) mode of conveying information (e.g. repeating, and inherited audience); (2) content (e.g. positive selection technique, fragmentation, utilisation of the inaccessibility principle, emphasising the benefits of interacting with a medium, increasing the attractiveness of a communication by referring to broadly understood authority figures); and (3) form of communication (the technique of uniqueness).


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu


Marek Ostrowski
Creation Out of Nothing. The Fascist Propaganda in Litzmannstadt
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.06
105 – 121
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Słowa kluczowe

Litzmannstadt | Nazi propaganda | Second World War

Streszczenie

The article discusses the activities of Nazi propaganda in Litzmannstadt. It promotes the central notions of the Nazi ideology, such as Volk, land, and leadership in struggle. The purpose of political and military operations was to restore and maintain the ability to culturally dominate other nations. The Nazi state was ethnically, lin guistically and racially homogeneous – it knew not the notion of tolerance towards ethnic minorities. A major characteristic of the propaganda was it its influence on the activities of administrative bodies.


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Uniwersytet Łódzki


Małgorzata Kita
The Interview at the Beginning of Its History. Changes in the Implementations of the Genre
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.07
123 – 136
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Słowa kluczowe

interview | historical genology | similarities between the interview and the report

Streszczenie

The interview as a journalistic genre formed in the first half of the 19th century. The author of the article studies how interviews developed in the first century of its existence. As the material basis I use the anthology: Wywiady prasowe wszech czasów originally edited by C. Silvester as The Penguin Book of Interviews. The genological analysis indicates that even at the beginning of the genre, interviewers selected as interviewees persons who had something to say about a certain topic. In terms of the structure of the interview, one might conclude that the first instances had the shape and form of a dialogue of two persons of specific pragmatic qualities: a journalist and the person with whom a conservation was considered worthy of publishing in a newspaper. Somewhat along that form, there emerged interviews which included narration, similar in form to the report. The author discusses the reasons for the similarities between the interview and the report.


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Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach


Maria Wojtak
Linguistic and Stylistic Polyphony of Occasional Journalism
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.08
137 – 149
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Słowa kluczowe

communication | discourse | press discourse | journalist | text genre

Streszczenie

The article was intended as an attempt at defining a specific press publication in the form of a genre collection. It was the supplement to the Tygodnik Powszechny weekly (issue 29 of 2018) entitled “Festiwal Stolica Języka Polskiego” [Capital of Polish Language Festival]. The publication utilised the form of a press magazine, as apart from the program of the festival, it also included: an editorial, interviews, reviews, commentaries and the bios of selected festival guests. Thus, it offered a cooccurrence of specific statements in a specific place and time which is typical for such a collection. The whole could be assigned the function of announcing a cultural event (the festival), and the function of promoting it. The author analyses the publication from the discursive perspective, i.e. she focussed on specific communicational practices typical for contemporary press, which form a complex network of strategies, goals and forms of communication, which, in turn, form contemporary journalism. The analytical objective of the paper was to present the communicational polyphony of a specific collection of journalistic expressions, that is which interpret a specific reality and were used for convincing the readers to accept that interpretation. Individual texts were treated as voices, i.e. in types of linguistic actions formed in communicational (pragmatic) and formal terms.


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Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie


Andrzej Adamski
Children’s Magazines as Tools for (Not Only) Reading Education
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.09
151 – 172
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Słowa kluczowe

children’s press | media education | reading education | readership

Streszczenie

The main aim of the article is to answer the question of how children’s magazines may be used as tools for media education understood as educating children on how to process media, and also as instilling the habit of reading periodicals and books. Hypothesis: It is generally assumed in the scholarly literature that periodicals for children may be an effective tool in encouraging a reading habit. Unfortunately, this segment of the press market, just as all other segments, faces declining readership due to the expansion of the digital media. Methodology: An analysis the existing data (e.g. study reports) and academic analyses in terms of the impact of the media, pedagogy, media education, and media psychology. The article is theoretical in nature. It stems from the discipline of the “science of social communication and the media”, yet it offers an interdisciplinary approach, due to its references to pedagogy, education, and technology.


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Wyższa Szkoła Informatyki i Zarządzania w Rzeszowie


Alfred Marek Wierzbicki
Karol Wojtyła’s Philosophy on the Issue of Modernity
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.10
173 – 185
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Słowa kluczowe

subjectivity | freedom | personalism | modernism | awareness | conscience

Streszczenie

Karol Wojtyła’s anthropology is characterised by a synthesis of objectivity and subjectivity, and his combination of aletheic and agapic notions. By accepting the modern anthropological turn, on the one hand, he attempted in his works a synthesis of the classic philosophy of being with the philosophy of awareness, and, on the other, he strived to correct the extreme anthropocentrism of modern thought. The author of the article analysed the relationship between Wojtyła’s concept of awareness and subjectivity with the personalistic style of John Paul II’s ministry of “man as the basic path of the Church.” The other pillar of the analysis is the question about the meaning of human freedom. In Wojtyła’s thought and in the teachings of John Paul II, any discussion of freedom as the basic property of a personal being was combined with a reflection on its ethical dimension.


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Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II


Grażyna Habrajska
Interpreting Texts in Various Discourses
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.11
187 – 208
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Słowa kluczowe

discourse | interpretative field | text interpretation

Streszczenie

Within the communication-based approach, discourse is an area of meanings, which are formed through the interpretation of texts. Those meanings remain in our memory and are active as per communicational needs. The meanings forming a discourse constitute a particular basis for reference, i.e. its own logic. Therefore, one must learn how to participate in specific discourses. In considering the general purpose of communication and the special base of reference of meaning, we identified such discourses as: academic, official, journalistic, and artistic, which one could narrow down to more specific sub-discourses. The texts created within a discourse or sub-discourse may take both verbal and visual forms. Each discourse introduces different rules of interpretation, which a participant must learn. Discourses develop and exist within their own interpretative fields. Participation in a discourse both expands and improves its interpretative field. When a person does not participate in a discourse, they drop out of the discourse altogether. It is worth remembering that people possess various levels of the readiness to participate in specific discourses.


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Uniwersytet Łódzki


Karolina Dobrosz-Michiewicz
On not Yielding to Temptation
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.12
209 – 222
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Słowa kluczowe

personality | temptation | moral and legal legalism | social norms

Streszczenie

The notion of yielding to temptation has already been studied by ethnographers, sociologists, and morality researchers. Yet the situation is different in the area of social psychology. My review of the literature in that scope indicated the existence of two dominant research perspectives used in studies on the situation of giving in to temptation: the perspective related to resocialisation psychology, which discusses the notion in terms of behaviour, and the perspective of the psychology of morality. The results of the research which indicated that in most cases people are ready to, e.g. yield to the temptation of easy gains, despite their declared appreciation of the legal and ethical norms prohibiting the misappropriation of other people’s property, formed the starting point for my study. What else if not the legal framework can prevent a person from giving in to temptation when it arises? What role does our personality play in that? The article presents the results of a study into the correlation between personality-based variables and a person’s yielding to temptation.


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Uniwersytet Łódzki


Zofia Władyka-Łuczak
Artistic Inspiration: Initiation of an Artistic Communication
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.13
223 – 236
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Słowa kluczowe

visual communication | output | composition | painting’s formal structure | formal narration | theory of vision | verbal communication | visual message

Streszczenie

The article is an attempt to answer the question: When and why is artistic communication initiated? The analysis which leads to the final conclusion was conducted on the basis of an autoethnographic analysis of the process of creating Pomnik Początków Miasta Łodzi (Monument to the Beginnings of Łódź). Its main element was the search for the border between the pre-creative and the creative states during an artist’s work. The analysis indicated that: “Regardless of whether I am working on a sculpture which was commissioned or a sculpture for myself, the processes of triggering precreative and creative states are similar. I always begin work by collecting the material. I work as constructivists would like me to: I study the elements which refer to various differentiation systems. [...] I am aware of the fact that the expected transition from the pre-creative to the creative state can happen at any moment. Today, after many years, I already know that it is not worth evaluating the gathered material – the triggering of the creative state is going to happen either way.” The core of triggering the creative attitude is the development of the skills for observing the reality which surrounds an artist, and even more importantly: the development of the skills of extracting from it that which we are used to calling inspiration in the whole complex process. The line between the pre-creative and creative states emerges in the moment when an artist decides to transfer a fragment of the reality they noticed to the work of art they are creating. The evaluation of a work of art is a completely different issue, which was omitted in this article.


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Uniwersytet Łódzki


Konrad Witold Tatarowski
“Gawęda radiowa”. The Works by Masters of Talk Radio (Using the Examples of Selected Shows from the Polish Branch of RFE)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.14
237 – 245
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Słowa kluczowe

radio chat | radio genres | Polish Brodcaster RFE

Streszczenie

The article includes a definition and a description of radio gawęda (or talk radio show) in comparison to the literary gawęda, and a discussion of its various genre variants, using the examples of radio shows by Zygmunt Nowakowski, Alfred Zbyszewski, and Tadeusz Nowakowski, and the television shows by Jerzy Waldorff and Bogusław Kaczyński.


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Uniwersytet Łódzki


Joanna Bachura-Wojtasik,
Paulina Czarnek-Wnuk,
Kinga Sygizman
“Life is Beautiful” (“Życie jest piękne”). A Short Study of a Radio Reportage Series of the Głos Ewangelii Foundation
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.15
247 – 259
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Słowa kluczowe

radio | report | mission | religiosity

Streszczenie

The article discusses the radio reports prepared by the Głos Ewangelii Foundation. The Życie jest piękne series was analysed and interpreted in terms of the themes, the sound effects used, and the presence of religious themes and the notion of God. The selected audio material also enabled the researchers to indicate the general qualities of the reporting style of the Głos Ewangelii Foundation.


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Joanna Bachura-Wojtasik
Uniwersytet Łódzki


Paulina Czarnek-Wnuk
Uniwersytet Łódzki


Kinga Sygizman
Uniwersytet Łódzki


Katarzyna Michalak
Against “Globalised Indifference”. Radio Reporters in the Face of the Refugee Crisis
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18778/1505-9057.54.16
261 – 274
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Słowa kluczowe

migration | reportage | the other | philosophy of dialogue | use of sounds

Streszczenie

Since it intensified in 2015, the migration crisis has become one of the major topics of media coverage. With time those numerous pieces resulted in society becoming indifferent to the plight of migrants. The newcomers, stereotypically treated as aliens, became a group of the unnecessary and unneeded, which then started to bear social tension and divisions. The author of the article intends to indicate that reportage/feature, radio reportage in particular, is one of the methods for building dialogue between cultures. In following the remarks of Ryszard Kapuściński and Emmanuel Levinas, the author noted that an encounter with “the Other” is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. The three analysed programmes seem to prove the fact that the medium of radio may fulfil a special role in overcoming “globalised indifference.”


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Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie


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Acta Universitatis Lodziensis
Uniwersytet Łódzki
ISSN 1505-9057
Folia Litteraria Polonica
Wydział Filologiczny
e-ISSN 2353-1908