Facing East. International Scholars on Japanese Culture

Redaktor: Kamila Sosnowska

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Pobrań
Kamila Sosnowska
Foreword
7 – 9
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Afiliacja

Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie / Katedra Porównawczych Studiów Cywilizacji
Klaudia Adamowicz
Transculturality as a Method on the Example of Visual Kei
11 – 23
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Streszczenie

The aim of this paper is to present the theory of transculturality treated as a method of researching Japanese contemporary culture. According to Wolfgang Welsch the essence of transculturality lies in transcultural networks which are built based on the category of fascination, presence and proximity. As I show on the example of visual kei, these terms are especially relevant in reference to Japanese culture which seems to be transcultural in its structure. Describing the characteristics of visual kei I show the way in which local elements are linked with foreign ones leading to the creation of a new network combining the elements from both of them, at the same time bearing a brand new quality. Presented example can be a starting point for future considerations in the field of Japanese culture.

Afiliacja

Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie / Katedra Porównawczych Studiów Cywilizacji
Alari Allik
Chōmei as a Reader: Discovering “Self” in the Writings of Yasutane
25 – 43
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Streszczenie

Yoshishige no Yasutane (931–997) and Kamo no Chōmei (1155–1216) both engaged in Buddhist self-writing on the path to rebirth in Pure Land. Chōmei followed the example set by Yasutane and allegedly even chose the sinograph ‘tane’ 胤 for his dharma-name Ren’in with the Chinese reading ‘in’. In the present article I will take a look at how Chōmei / Ren’in constructs his textual identity based on the image of Yasutane discovered in reading. His main goal was to mimetically follow the example set by the earlier generations of practitioners. I will argue that through forming karmic links (kechien) with outstanding writers one could connect with the literary space provided by a group of interlinked authors. Following Mikhail Epstein’s ideas I have called this kind of mimetic relationship between authors hyper-authorship. Hyper-authorship cannot be reduced to any ‘real’ person and exists in the shared space of virtual authorial identities that are discovered in reading. The values and expressions common to these authors did not belong to any single individual and were freely shared by a community of people who followed the same path.

Afiliacja

Tallinn University, Estonia
Marina Kozlova
Communicative Model in Modern Japanese Architecture
45 – 57
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Streszczenie

The article is devoted to the revealing and characterization of the central categories that spatial perception of architecture in Japan is based on. Provided analysis of those categories leads to understanding its role in forming the image of traditional Japanese architecture; which also gave the explanation of the structures and shapes of contemporary Japanese architecture. To underline this statement, meaningful works of three notable modern Japanese architects were selected. A special attention is given to the revelation how in order to produce the communicative act between the viewer and himself, those architects use the categories of emptiness, interval and shadow in their buildings according to their own perception of space.

Afiliacja

University of Novosibirsk, Russia
Yunuen Mandujano
The Banal Campaign in Japanese Media for the Reproduction of a Traditional National Identity Discourse
59 – 76
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Streszczenie

Building on the notion of banal nationalism and through the interpretative textual analysis of Japanese media contents related to two study cases, it is offered a reading on the dominant discourses found in the representations of popular celebrities promoted as national representatives. Considering the economic, social and political Japanese context, it is argued the presence of a strong ideological campaign directed to reproduce a national identity based on features that have been defended as traditionally Japanese, supporting notions of ethnic and social homogeneity and the male as center of the society. This campaign, declared by the government to be related to the recovery of a positive spirit of the society in order to help Japan overcome natural disaster and economic related crisis, is suggested as particularly dangerous given its parallel development with the strengthening of a neo-nationalist trend in the political arena.

Afiliacja

Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico
Marco Pellitteri
Notions of Japan and Manga in France and Italy. The First Main Results of a Survey among Readers and Non-Readers of Manga
77 – 107
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Streszczenie

Since 2007 the ‘Manga Network’, an international research group, is working on a project on the success of manga and the image of Japanese pop culture in several European countries. After the first phase of its work in 2007–2010 with an international survey, in 2011 a second survey has been launched, this time not only among readers but among non-readers of manga as well. As a first outcome of this second survey, the work upon which is still ongoing, the present chapter presents a starting outlook of the first statistic tests carried out and a set of theoretical and empirical considerations on the images of manga and Japan in the countries here considered.

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Kobe University, Japan
Kamila Sosnowska
Ijime. Definition and Images in Contemporary Japanese Cinema and TV Production
109 – 120
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The article deals from few thematic fields: sociology, education and cultural studies with a topic that is ijime – bullying in Japanese schools. The definitions of the phenomenon, its types and possible causes will be followed by analysis of a few chosen works of Japanese film and television production. I will analyse the way ijime is depicted in these works. The following findings are an effect of research conducted during a 6-month scholarship funded by Japan Foundation in Kansai Institute in Japan in the academic year 2013–2014.

Ijime is a significant element of Japanese school reality and one of the main problems still corroding the education system. What I found especially interesting was the regularity with which this motif appeared in various works of Japanese popular culture. It might even seem that if there is a school-themed story or a story about youth/school-children, there is very big chance that there will appear ijime. It might be a main theme but usually it is a side topic, e.g. in the form of a retrospective.

Afiliacja

Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie / Katedra Porównawczych Studiów Cywilizacji
Ceren Aksoy Sugiyama
Tourism in Japan Reconsidered: Exploring the Link Between Everyday Life and Domestic Tourism
121 – 136
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Streszczenie

In the anthropological studies regarding the tourist practices in Japan it has been insistently argued that the main motivation channeling the tourism industry is based on a feeling of dissolution of the cultural identitiy. This anxiety culminating with the profit incentive manifest itself through tourism campaigns, pamhlets, brochures which in turn give shape to the the tourist experience. However this kind of arguments do not offer an insight into why Japanese show an interest in or emotionally react to certain things. In addition to that, contrary to the studies positioning tourist activities as an opposite of everyday life practices, this study aims to go beyond this dichotomy in order to give a better understanding of the Japanese travel culture.

Afiliacja

Ankara University, Turkey
Adam Uryniak
The Last Samurai. Transcultural Motifs in Jim Jarmusch’s Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai
137 – 148
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Streszczenie

Ghost Dog: Way of the Samurai by Jim Jarmusch is a film combining cinematic traditions of USA, Europe and Japan. Jarmusch’s work can be example of contemporary culture trend named by Wolfgang Welscha transculturality. According to his theory the identity of the man is dependent on foreign elements absorbed by the culture in which he lives. Two main inspirations for the director are samurai tradition and bushido code on one hand, and tradition of gangster film on the other. Despite the culturally distant origins of these elements, Jarmush is able to construct a coherent, multi-level narrative, at the same time maintaining distance towards American traditions. Referencing works by transgressive directors (J. P. Melville, Seijun Suzuki) Jarmusch becomes the spokesperson for the genre evolution and its often far-fetched influences.

Afiliacja

Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie / Wydział Zarządzania i Komunikacji Społecznej
James White
A Manual for Femininity? Evolving Models of Gender in Japanese Beer Advertising
149 – 166
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Streszczenie

Beer in Japan is both essential to socialising and a normative practice. It is also highly gendered and people are informed about how to perform their gender via beer advertising, which disseminates these practices across Japan. This paper explores four models of gender which have appeared in Japanese television advertisements during the post-war period. It charts how these four models – the Loner Male, the Vanished Geisha, the Couple, and the Androgyne – have evolved and their relation to masculinity and femininity in Japan.

Afiliacja

University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
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1 – 170
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