Numer 2019/4
Energy security in Europe

Redaktorzy: Konstanty Adam Wojtaszczyk, Marta Witkowska, Wojciech Lewandowski
Spis treści
Strony
Pobierz
Marek Żurek
Evolution of the German concepts of military cooperation in Europe
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0013.7886
11 – 29
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Słowa kluczowe

Germany | European Union | military cooperation | Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) | the European army

Streszczenie

Germany’s military cooperation with European partners is undertaken either within the European Union or outside its structures. The cooperation within the European Union takes place mainly on two levels: inter-governmental and supranational. The cooperation outside the EU is also focused on two levels: bilateral and multilateral. The author’s intention is to identify the direction of the evolution of the German concepts of military cooperation in Europe during the reign of Angela Merkel using a multi-level approach. Concepts co-created or co-implemented by Germany assume that strong and united Europe can counteract external threats by development of its own military component. It is clear, that there is conceptual asymmetry, that is why there are more intergovernmental concepts (military missions, PESCO, strengthened CSDP, EI2) than transnational concepts, from which we distinguish the only one, e.g. the concept of the European army. The influence on the evolution of the German concepts can have an integral federalism, which this country adheres to, and which was implemented after the Second World War into the political and administrative system, i.e. system based on multilevelness and cooperation of authorities, that has proved effective, so it can also be effective in multi-level military cooperation in the EU.


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Uniwersytet Szczeciński
Mieczysława Zdanowicz
The European citizens’ initiative. Over one million support, and what next?
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0013.7887
33 – 44
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Słowa kluczowe

European Citizens’ Initiative | follow-up activities | communication of the European Commission

Streszczenie

The subject of the analysis in this article are European citizens’ initiatives, which during 12 months gained the support of over 1 million of the EU citizens from at least seven Member States. The aim of the article is to examine, what actions have been taken in these matters by the European Commission. The following research questions were posed: (1) What was the effect of the Commission’s call to submit, under its power, proposals, for which, in the opinion of the citizens supporting the initiative, the application of the Treaties requires a legal act of the Union? (2) What actions has the Commission taken and what is their justification? The analysis demonstrates that these initiatives have been taken into account by the Commission to a very small extent in the procedures for establishing legislative acts of the European Union. Therefore, it is reasonable to amend the Regulation on the European Citizens’ Initiative.


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Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
Mateusz Gregorski
Legislative changes regarding unmanned flights as an opportunity for professional empowerment of persons with disabilities
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0013.7888
45 – 62
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Słowa kluczowe

labour market | unmanned aviation | drones | disability | professional empowerment

Streszczenie

The turn of the 20th and 21st century was the time of flourishing of many modern technologies, among which was the popularisation of unmanned aviation in civil applications. This article aims to presentation of the genesis of this technology and the opportunities, which it offers in the context of people with disabilities. This paper is a synthesis of scholar literature of the research subject, legal regulations on international and national levels, as well as the author’s own reflections on the ways, in which drones can be used for the needs of people with disabilities in the context of contemporary law and its possible changes.


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Uniwersytet Warszawski
Karolina Mania
Monitoring of the employee’s Internet use in the workplace in the light of selected case law of the European Court of Human Rights and Polish case law
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0013.7889
63 – 77
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Słowa kluczowe

European Court of Human Rights | Internet use | monitoring | workplace | Internet law

Streszczenie

This article analyses selected case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) as well as Polish case law in the subject matter specified in the title, i.e. the monitoring of Internet use by employees in the workplace. The author has selected the research subject based on the own observations on the existence of nuances and divergences in the ECHR’s case law in this field, as well as a growing importance of this matter in the context of increasing employees’ online activity at work. The study is based on such research methods as content analysis, comparative legal methodology and the formal-dogmatic approach.


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Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
Mira Malczyńska-Biały
The specificities of modern consumer society in the European Union
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0013.7890
81 – 92
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Słowa kluczowe

European Union | Consumer ethics | consumer society | specificities | consumer policy

Streszczenie

The article aims to analyse the specificities of modern consumer society in the European Union and, therefore, it presents the genesis and the essence of consumer society development in Europe. It points to the idea of consumer society in terms of economy, politics, sociology, and philosophy. The specificities of the modern consumer society in the European Union are influenced by legislative processes in regard to the economical safety of consumers including safety of goods in terms of information, education, and redress, with special regard to cross-border transactions. The article presents the definition of consumer ethics and the specifics of certain ethical norms connected with the purchase process, what have evolved together with the development of consumer society in the EU.


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Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Dominika Czapla
Energy security of the European Union – opportunities and challenges
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0013.7891
93 – 107
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Słowa kluczowe

energy security | renewable energy sources | energy policy

Streszczenie

For many years, the future of energy has been one of the most important problems and challenges for both national and global policy making. It is related to the high responsibility of the energy sector for climate change on Earth, but also for caring about ensuring sufficient energy for the future generations. Thus, energy policy is an important pillar of maintaining, broadly understood as internal security of the country. The biggest challenge related to ensuring energy security of the European Union is the diversification of energy sources. Member States are trying to tackle this challenge in two ways. Firstly, through the development of renewable energy, and secondly, looking for new channels for the supply of non-renewable energy. The restructuring of the energy sector, which has taken place in recent years, in accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, aims to intensify the use of environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. Equally important is the construction of the Nord Stream 2 and Turk Steam gas pipelines, which has been ongoing for several years, which raises much controversy in the Member States. The article is an analysis of the opportunities and challenges facing the European Union related to ensuring stable energy supplies to European citizens.


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Uniwersytet Warszawski
Robert Kłaczyński
Russian natural gas sector: current situation, perspectives, and its importance for Europe
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0013.7892
109 – 122
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Słowa kluczowe

Russian Federation | Gazprom | natural gas | global fuel market | pipelines

Streszczenie

The aim of the article is to outline the prospects for the Russian natural gas market in the future and to present the Russian gas sector in comparison with the strategic “players” of the global market. The author examines the issues related to the production, transmission and sale of Russian natural gas. The main problem concerns the possibilities and limitations, that influence the power of the Russian “blue fuel” sector. The article presents briefly the results of the research, which were obtained mainly through the method of case study. The verification of the main hypothesis will be made from the top–down perspective, considering analysis of the actions of state decision-making centres. Less explicit impact, including the interaction of non-public actors (such as economic items), will be skipped, because their more precise consideration would provide to the interesting, but different direction of analysis of the sectoral groups of interest.


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Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Tarnowie
José Luis Orella Martínez
Podemos and the conquest of the skies
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0013.7893
123 – 141
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Słowa kluczowe

Podemos | 21st century socialism | new left | Pablo Iglesias

Streszczenie

The article deals with the establishment by several professors of the Complutense University of a leftist political movement. Its name is Podemos, and it is a political movement that emerged from 15-M movement, based on different groups of left-wing and claim struggle, and it inaugurated a platform, that had a strong role in shaping the Spanish left, assuming a plurinational, feminist, antimilitarist and favorable speech to the new Bolivarian left.


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Universidad CEU San Pablo, Madryt, Hiszpania
Paweł Hut,
Józef Szymeczek
Contemporary migration and population situation in Poland on the background of the European Union
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0013.7894
142 – 167
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Słowa kluczowe

migration | Demography | population | refugees | repatriates

Streszczenie

We are currently observing significant changes in the world’s population. Until World War II, we could see a constant increase in population in various parts of the world. Currently, in the selected countries of the eastern part of the EU, the population is decreasing, e.g. in Poland or Romania. Demographic indicators (fertility rate, mortality rate, migration rate) are affected by economic and social conditions. Various en masse pro-natalist policies are ineffective. EU societies are focused on expectations other than parenthood. These changes will require new actions by state authorities in the area of demography.


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Paweł Hut
Uniwersytet Warszawski

Józef Szymeczek
Czech Ostravská univerzita
Muamer Hirkić
The question of an alternative to the EU membership of Bosnia and Herzegovina
DOI: 10.5604/01.3001.0013.7895
169 – 181
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Słowa kluczowe

European Union | alternative to the membership | public opinion | development | Bosnia and Herzegovina

Streszczenie

In a recent survey conducted by the Directorate for European Integration in Bosnia and Herzegovina, it appears that 43.6% of respondents believe that there is an alternative to the European Union (EU) membership. The survey was conducted by using the Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) method, on a sample that is representative for the entire country. Therefore, this article will explore the possibility of pursuing foreign policy that is geared towards several geopolitical centres and implications for the country. Primarily, this refers to alternative development models offered by international actors such as China, Russia, Turkey and Saudi Arabia. Although the EU often emphasises commitment to the Western Balkan region, both internal and external processes are becoming heavily politicised. In this regard, the author will also attempt to examine some of these processes and the main stakeholders (both in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the European Union), who could stall the future European integration.


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Univerzitet u Sarajevu, Bośnia i Hercegowina
Karolina Zbytniewska
Book review: J. D. Vance (2016), “Hillbilly Elegy. A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis”, London: William Collins
185 – 188
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Uniwersytet Warszawski

Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Studiów Międzynarodowych
ICI Journals Master List 2019: 97,45
ISSN 1641-2478
Uniwersytet Warszawski
MEiN: 40 p.
e-ISSN 2657-6023