Numer 20/1 (2021)
Redaktor: Wojciech Franus
Spis treści
Strony
Pobierz
Adrian Krężlik
Many beginnings: the thought, thinkers and actions behind the planet-oriented architecture
DOI: 10.35784/bud-arch.2021
5 – 24
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

modern architecture | planet-oriented architecture | organic architecture | vernacular architecture | tropical architecture | regenerative design

Streszczenie

The article maps multiple planet-oriented movements in the history of modern (predominantly western) architecture. It looks for architectural pronunciation of social movements, political actions and historical moments. In writings of acclaimed architects and authors, it searches for origins of organic, vernacular and tropical architecture and their offspring in the contemporary approaches, views and design. The article documents changes of perception of relation between man, nature and architecture.  It commences with the very first attempts to understand this relationship: idealization and romanticisation of nature, it finishes with the most contemporary analyses based on the holistic approach and computer simulation. The article draws an extensive panorama of authors and publications that researched planted-oriented architecture.

Afiliacja

Universidade do Porto, Portugalia
Jakub Frejtag
Society of Workers’ Housing Estates and its attempt to overcome the residential crisis in interwar Poland. A contribution to further research
DOI: 10.35784/bud-arch.2349
25 – 36
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Słowa kluczowe

housing estates | housing policy | labourers

Streszczenie

After the Great War, one of the most challenging obstacles of the newly recreated Polish state was to ensure residential space for the group of citizens most vulnerable to exclusion. Labourers indeed required an inexpensive and modest habitations maintaining modern sanitary standards. Such facilities were underrepresented in Poland at that time. Mostly overpriced and unsanitary flats were offered in 19th-century housing. Also new housing, although with all modern amenities, did not provide flats with parameters that could meet the expectations of the least wealthy of labourers. In such circumstances, at the end of 1934, a new state-owned company was created – the Society of Workers’ Housing Estate (Towarzystwo Osiedli Robotniczych). Its aim was to build and grant loans for the construction of residential areas with flats meeting the needs of the lower-class labourers. Despite the difficulties, up to 1939, thousands of new flats were built under the Society’s initiative. All these investments exemplify a successful and far-reaching social policy of Second Polish Republic that made residential crisis manageable.

Afiliacja

Uniwersytet Warszawski
Camille Cosson
From Emergency Shelter towards Disaster-relief Housing — Tōhoku’s Reconstruction Case Study
DOI: 10.35784/bud-arch.1587
35 – 46
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Słowa kluczowe

Japan | Earthquake | Reconstruction | Planning | Housing

Streszczenie

This paper presents the post-disaster reconstruction of the Tōhoku region. Although Japan has always been one of the most prepared countries because of its long history with natural disasters, the 2011 Great East Japanese Earthquake and tsunami might be one of the most significant disasters recorded in the country’s modern history. This unprecedented disaster that has shaken Japan is a decisive turning point for the entire society as well as for architects and urban planners. Almost ten years later, reconstruction work is still ongoing. This paper introduces specifically Japanese architects’ involvement during the three phases of recovery: emergency shelter, temporary accommodation and permanent housing. After the first stage of perplexity and doubt, architects gradually stepped up and started initiatives to resolve the disaster victims’ precarious situation. This article outlines some of the architects’ actions through the three phases of recovery since the 3.11 disaster. Each of these temporalities has its issues and challenges which the urban planners, architects and designers tried to solve using their know-how to help rebuild devastated communities.

Afiliacja

Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japonia
Dżoana Latała-Matysiak,
Marcin Marciniak
Design at the root of biophilia. Imitation. Nature
DOI: 10.35784/bud-arch.1545
47 – 58
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

organic architecture | contemporary architecture | landscape architecture | biophilia | nature

Streszczenie

According to the current state of research on the phenomenon of biophilia, the positive influence of nature's elements on humans has long been widely understood. Since the negative impact of urbanised areas on quality of life was noticed, human-friendly architecture has been redefined, where the physical and mental well-being of people using buildings, remains highly dependent on their contact with the environment. Selected examples of existing buildings analyzed two different approaches to contemporary biophilic architecture; one where nature is the pedestal of the whole building and one where the interpretation of nature translates into technological, engineering or structural solutions. The architectural examples modelled on nature, have gained recognition in local communities and worldwide renown, so it can be concluded that the flourishing of organic and bionic architecture is fully justified. Biophilia determines human well-being, while remaining closely related to the natural environment.

Afiliacja

1 Uniwersytet Opolski
Agnieszka Chęć-Małyszek
Architecture as the art of creating human-friendly places, Lublin public space
DOI: 10.35784/bud-arch.1520
59 – 76
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Słowa kluczowe

art | public space | architecture | work of art | urban space

Streszczenie

The public space of a city plays a special role in the life of every human being, as it meets basic and at the same time most important needs related to safety and comfort of life. It is a combination of an idea and a technique, which for centuries has reflected the changes taking place in people's social and cultural life. While the city is a multi-layered structure with a clearly separated private and public zone, creating mutual relations between the buildings. Camillo Sitte saw the city urban spaces as a work of art, które should be designed in such a way that the inhabitants feel safe and happy, as it is not just a show-off of technical skill, but an artistic undertaking. [1] The art of designing architecture does not exist for itself, but is created for the target audience.  It provides a harmony that satisfies human needs and guarantees survival. It is an important factor influencing the development of an individual through the organization of a social living space. Urban spaces are primarily people and their needs that change over time. The first part of the article is devoted to the role of public spaces and the idea of the city as a work of art. The second part, in turn, is an attempt to define architecture as a kind of fine arts, taking into account the role it plays in the social life of Lublin's residents.  The article is an attempts to emphasize the importance of architecture in designing a human-friendly environment as an art design that meets social expectations with the use of selected examples urban space of the city of Lublin.

Afiliacja

Politechnika Lubelska
Petro Rychkov
The architecture of the former Carmelite Monastery in the Mali Dorohostai village in Volhynia
DOI: 10.35784/bud-arch.1546
77 – 82
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Słowa kluczowe

Volhynia | Mali Dorohostai village | Carmelite Monastery | architecture

Streszczenie

Monasteries of the Roman Catholic order of the Carmelites were well-represented in the historic cities of Volhynia (e.g. Berdychiv, Dubno, Vyshnivets, Kisilin, Lutsk, etc.). One of them was built in the Mali Dorohostai village, which currently is a part of the Mlyniv district in Rivne Oblast of Ukraine. This monastery, built in the mid-18th century, was closed in the 1830s, and then adapted by the Russian Tsar for the use of Orthodox Church. During the first World War, it was completely destroyed. The architecture of this monastery is almost forgotten in modern historiography. The recently discovered archival drawings from the first half of the 19th century give a good idea of the stylistic and structural characteristics of the no longer existing monastery.

Afiliacja

Politechnika Lubelska
Jerzy Szołomicki,
Hanna Golasz-Szołomicka
The Modern Trend of Super Slender Residential Buildings
DOI: 10.35784/bud-arch.2068
83 – 116
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Słowa kluczowe

development | tall residential buildings | slenderness | structural system | advanced materials | damping systems

Streszczenie

The purpose of this paper is to present a new skyscraper typology which has developed over the recent years – super-tall and slender, needle-like residential towers. This trend appeared on the construction market along with the progress of advanced structural solutions and the high demand for luxury apartments with spectacular views. Two types of constructions can be distinguished within this typology: ultra-luxury super-slim towers with the exclusivity of one or two apartments per floor (e.g. located in Manhattan, New York) and other slender high-rise towers, built in Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong, Bangkok, and Melbourne, among others, which have multiple apartments on each floor. This paper presents a survey of selected slender high-rise buildings, where structural improvements in tall buildings developed over the recent decade are considered from the architectural and structural view.

Afiliacja

1 Politechnika Wrocławska
Monika Trojanowska
Urban design and therapeutic landscapes. Evolving theme
DOI: 10.35784/bud-arch.1987
117 – 140
PDF

Słowa kluczowe

architecture | urban design | therapeutic landscapes | health promoting places

Streszczenie

The global pandemic of COVID-19, which enforced strict isolation, demonstrated the responsibility of architects and planners for public health promotion. While the concept of therapeutic landscapes is rather new, the quest for designing health-promoting human environment is at least as old as urban planning. The garden suburbs of Ebenezer Howard and Patrick Geddes were planned to promote health and well-being. The ultimate goal of Le Corbusier was to provide daylight and fresh air to each apartment. However, towers in open green space, which were built according to his visions, turned into unfriendly large suburbs. Today, the definition of therapeutic landscapes encompasses not only physical aspects of environment but also social and psychological factors. This study focuses on attempts to create health-promoting places. The interesting question is  what are the architectural features linked to health promotion? Although the individual perception of health-promoting places is subjective and may vary, there are some objective qualities of eco-neighbourhoods that are conducive to human health and longevity. This study combines literature review with field observation and resultes in the development of the conceptual framework which can be consolidated into the universal standards for health-promoting places.

Afiliacja

Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy im. Jana i Jędrzeja Śniadeckich w Bydgoszczy
Politechnika Lubelska
https://ph.pollub.pl/index.php/bia/index
e-ISSN 2544-3275
Wydział Budownictwa i Architektury
wb.bia@pollub.pl
ISSN 1899-0665